Zuni Pueblos



Language: Zuni (Isolate)
Family: Zuni
Stock: Zuni
Phylum: Zuni
Macro-Culture: Southwestern
Speakers 6,413   1980 Census
      The Zuni Pueblos were a sedentary agricultural culture of the greater Pueblo culture.  They were located in New Mexico in the drainage of the Zuni River and its tributaries and in Arizona about 30 miles east of the state line on the Puerco River.  They were early victims of the Spanish conquest and were preyed upon by the Navajos, Apaches, Comanches, and Utes, ultimately consolidating into one village.  Their language is a isolate, apparently related to no other.
Aboriginal Locations
AZ    1 village
NM  21 villages
Arizona Present Locations
AZ:  Jemez Pueblo, Jemez
Year History
1528 Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca was told of rich agricultural pueblos north of Texas along the Rio Grande
1539 After viewing a Zuni pueblo from an distance, Fray Marcos de Niza started the Seven Cities of Cibola rumor
1540 Coronado set out to conquer Cibola with 300 men, 1,000 horses, 6 friars
1573 Royal Ordinance of King Phillip II protected Indians from conquest
1580 Visited by Francisco Sanchez Chamuscado
1582 Visited by Antonio de Espejo  
1598 Juan de Onate led 400 soldiers, friars, colonists; forced Pueblos to swear vassalage to Spain, declared the region a Franciscan missionary province which he divided into seven districts
1607 Onate removed from governorship
1609 New governor Pedro de Peralta founded Santa Fe, built palace with Pueblo labor, disregarded protection laws
1629 Franciscan mission established at Hawikuh
1630 Severe drought
1632 Killed missionaries, fled to Taaiyalone for three years
1663 Severe drought for several years, thousands died
1670 Apache raid on Hawikuh, burned church, killed missionary
1680 Pueblo Revolt against Spanish led by San Juan Tewa Pope, 500 Spanish slaughtered in siege of Santa Fe
1694 Spanish attack under Vargas killed 84, 361 prisoners removed to Santa Fe, tribe in single village
1699 Church established
1703 Killed missionary, fled for two years
1720 Trade fairs began with nomadic tribes and prosperity resulted
1777 Gov. Juan Bautista de Anza arranged peace between Pueblos and all nomadic tribes except Apache
1821 Mexican Independence, violence fanned by Mexican slaving raids
1823 Capitalizing on disorganized Mexican rule, start of 20 years of slaving and scalping by Navajo, Ute, Apache, and Comanche
1863 Kit Carson began Navajo roundup, some starvation due to crop failure, continued Mexican slaving
Year U.S. Population AZ NM Source
Arrival 10,000 500 9,500 NAHDB calculation
1630 10,000 10,000 Fray Alonzo de Benevides
1700 2,000 NAHDB calculation
1706 1,500 Fray Juan Alvarez
1752 745 New Mexico Census
1797 2,716 Fray Francisco de Hezio
1800 2,500 2,500 NAHDB calculation
1810 1,602 New Mexico census
1860 1,150 Dozier
1900 1,514 Dozier
1900 1,500 1,500 NAHDB calculation
1910 1,667 Dozier
1923 1,911 US Indian Office
1930 1,991 Dozier
1937 2,080 US Indian Office
1948 2,671 Dozier
1964 5,176 Dozier
1973 5,428 BIA
1981 6,999 BIA
1989 8,299 BIA
2000 8,400 8,400 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
 Zuni Sites:
Adding a Breath to Zuni Life
Cushing, Frank Hamilton
Halona Inn
Hawikuh Ruins
Pueblo Culture and Ethnobotany
Zuni Art History
Zuni Eagle Rescue
Zuni Fetish
Zuni Fetish Necklaces
Zuni Fetishes
Zuni Fetishes
Zuni Fetishes
Zuni Fetishes
Zuni Fetishes
Zuni Fetishes
Zuni Fetishes
Zuni Fetishes
Zuni Indian Bread
Zuni Language
Zuni Language
Zuni Language and Ontology
Zuni Linguistic Lineage
Zuni Photo
Zuni Pottery
Zuni Pottery
Zuni Pottery
Zuni Pottery
Zuni Pottery
Zuni Pottery
Zuni Pottery
Zuni Pottery (Ancient)
Zuni Pottery Figures
Zuni Pueblo
Zuni Pueblo
Zuni Pueblo
Zuni Sacred Sites
Zuni Salt Lake
Zuni Side Up
Zuni Silver Pendant
Zuni Silversmithing
Zuni Turquoise
Zuni Turquoise Jewelry

Last updated 03/18/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press