Celtis occidentalis (Common hackberry) #8148 Celtis occidentalis (northern hackberry) - bark - large
Common Name Western Hackberry, Common Hackberry
Latin Name Celtis occidentalis
Family Ulmaceae
Sunset zones / USDA zones 1-3, 10-13 / 8-10
Type / Form Treee / Medium
Native Habitat Deserts below 6,000 feet from California to Texas and south into Mexico
Soil Dry to moist, decomposed granite, clay loam, limestone, low to some organic content, well drained, will grow in grass, does not mind foot traffic around its base
Exposure Full sun
Water Once or twice per month in hot dry weather
Height X Width 45 feet x 50 feet maximum
Protective Mechanism None
Leaves Green, winter deciduous
Flowers Monoecious; very small (1/8 inch), light green, produced on stalks from new leaf axils. Each flower with a 4 or 5 lobed calyx, appearing in spring.
Bark / Roots Smooth and gray-brown when young, soon developing corky, individual "warts" which later develop into rough corky, irregular ridges.  Twigs slender, zigzag, light red-brown with numerous lighter lenticels; terminal bud is lacking, but a pseudoterminal bud is present. Lateral buds are small, tan, triangular, and appressed, pith is often chambered at the nodes.
Maintenance Little
Propagation Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed is best given 2 - 3 months cold stratification and then sown February/March in a greenhouse. Germination rates are usually good, though the stored seed might take 12 months or more to germinate. The seed can be stored for up to 5 years. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots. The leaves of seedlings often have a lot of white patches without chlorophyll, this is normal and older plants produce normal green leaves. Grow the seedlings on in a cold frame for their first winter, and plant them out in the following late spring or early summer. Give them some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors. Cuttings
Pests and Diseases Foliage (leaf spot, nipple gall, chlorosis) and twig (witches' broom) cosmetic diseases are sometimes present
Landscape uses Erosion control, low maintenance, windbreak, background, parkways
Garden Suitability Thornless, Songbird, Butterfly, Ethnobotanical
Ornamental Value Attracts songbirds in fall and winter, good shade tree, small green flowers in spring
Nature Value Winter fruits eaten by songbirds, game birds, and other animals, larval plant for butterflies, cover for quail, erosion control
Native American Uses Dry berries ground for food
    Images and data: http://www.ipm.uconn.edu/Plants/c/celocc/celocc1.html
    Images and data: http://www.hcs.ohio-state.edu/hcs/TMI/Plantlist/ce_talis.html
    Images and data: http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/trees/CELOCCA.pdf
    Images and data: http://www.cnr.vt.edu/DENDRO/DENDROLOGY/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=26
    Images and data: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtis_occidentalis
    Images and data: http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ceoc
    Images and data: http://hcs.osu.edu/hcs/TMI/Plantlist/ce_talis.html
    Images and data: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/37946/
    Images and data: http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Ulmaceae/Celtis_reticulata.html
    Data: http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_2/celtis/occidentalis.htm
    Data: http://www.floridata.com/ref/c/celtis_o.cfm
    Data: www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Celtis+occidentalis
    Distribution map: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CEOC
    Distribution map: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500334
    Nursery Oak Hills Nursery, 13874 Ranchero Road, Oak Hills, 92345, 760-947-6261