Language: Wichita
Family Wichita
Stock: Northern Caddoan
Phylum: Caddoan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers 10 or fewer speakers   1998 James Brooks, NY Times
      The Wichita were a hunter/farmer tribe which evolved into a confederacy as closely related tribes were absorbed.  They were agricultural, as well as buffalo hunters.  The Wichita moved often due to pressure from predatory tribes and conflicts with Whites.  Their aboriginal location was near the great bend in the Arkansas River in central Kansas.  They removed to establish establish two large villages on the Red River called the Twin Villages.
       The confederacy now resides in Oklahoma comprised almost entirely of Wichita speaking peoples.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
KA (Akwits, Asidahhetsh, Isis, Itaz, Kinkiris, Kisjkst, Tokane)
Present Locations
OK Wichita Tribe, Anadarko
Year History
1500 Predatory Apacheans migrated into Wichita territories
1541 Met by Coronado while living in central Kansas, called "Quivira;"  Franciscan missionary Juan de Padilla remained three years before being killed by tribe
1601 Villages visited by Onate
1719 Found by La Harpe on Canadian River with confederate allies
1758 Allied with French, along with Caddo and Comanche, destroyed Spanish San Saba Mission and routed Lipan Apaches, raid launched from substantial Twin Villages on the Red River
1759 Spanish Col. Padilla attacked Twin Villages with 500 men and two cannons, but was soundly defeated and forced to retreat
1772 Found on the northern course of the Brazos River, had been forced south by the Osage
1778 Tawehash soon joined Wichita
1801 Smallpox epidemic
1808 Trader Anthony Glass met tribe at Twin Villages
1818 Secretary of War sent A. Woolf to negotiate peace with the Wichita (Towiach) found on the Brazos River; smallpox epidemic
1834 First US Dragoon Regiment from Fort Gibson visited Wichita villages and returned two captives from the Osage
1835 Made first treaty with US government
1836 War party of 100 Wichita, Comanche, Caddo, and Kiowa attacked Fort Parker, probably after having been swindled on a horse deal, killed five and captured five including nine year-old Cynthia Ann Parker, future mother of Comanche Chief Quanah Parker
1839 Smallpox epidemic
1850 Wichita settled in Rush Springs, OK joined by Tawakoni and Waco, and 10 Keeci
1858 US Military destroyed Rush Springs in pursuit of hostile Comanches
1865 Fled to Kansas during Civil War
1867 Returned to Oklahoma and assigned a reservation
1902 Smallpox epidemic
Year Total Population KA OK TX Source
1700 3,200 3,200 NAHDB calculation
1772 3,200 Mooney, Bolton, & Mexieres estimates
1800 3,200 3,200 NAHDB calculation
1868 572 Swanton
1900 600 600 NAHDB calculation 
1910 318 Census
1937 385 US Indian Office
1981 610 BIA
1989 869 BIA estimate
1998 1,900 1,900 Tribe
2000 2,000 2,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Tawakoni, Tawehash, and Waco until they joined the Wichita
Wichita Sites:
Art Works Reported Missing from Wichita Indian Center
Catlin Collection
Differences in Wichita Camp Sites ...
Grass Wigwam at Wichita
Huntinghorse, Dina, Jeweler
Kansas Archeology Week Poster
Native American Heritage Village
Red man Linked to the Palo Pinto Mountains
Wichita and Affiliated Tribes
Wichita Archives
Wichita Authors
Wichita Camp
Wichita Falls History
Wichita Folklore
Wichita Four Cycles Prophesy
Wichita Indian Center
Wichita Indian Legends
Wichita Indians
Wichita Indians
Wichita Indians
Wichita Indians
Wichita Indians of Texas
Wichita Indian Tribe
Wichita Language
Wichita Language
Wichita Linguistic Lineage
Wichita Literature
Wichita or Kitikit-ees
Wichita Tribe
Wichita Village

Last updated 04/06/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press