Western Shoshoni


Ethnie: SHOSHONI*, WESTERN (NEWE) *also spelled SHOSHONE
Language: Central Numic
Family: Numic
Stock: Uto-Aztecan
Phylum: Aztec-Tanoan
Macro-Culture: Great Basin
Speakers 2,284 in US incl Northern      1990 Census
     The Western Shoshoni were a nomadic hunter/gatherer dialectic group and culture closely related to the Northern Shoshoni. They were primarily of a foraging type culture in that they occupied the arid Great Basin as relied on small game, fish, and dug for roots for subsistence. They spanned over a large area in just under 200 small villages or camps. They ranged from central and western Idaho south into northwestern Utah, central and northeastern Nevada, and California about Death and Panamint Valleys but wondered well outside of the aforementioned territories hunting, gathering, and foraging for food..  The Western Shoshoni avoided White contact, thereby resulting in little of their post arrival history being recorded. The introduction of domestic livestock destroyed the vegetation on which they relied for food. The Panamint Shoshone and Koso became transitions cultures prior to White contact embracing the Southern California culture, becoming semi-sedentary rather than nomadic, and intermarrying with the tribes of Southern Califoania.  Please click here for a more detailed historical narrative of the Timbasha Shoshone relative to the proposed casino at Hesperia, California
Aboriginal Locations
Number of villages or camps:  CA 123, ID 6, NV 42, UT 10
Present Locations
CA    Big Pine Reservation, Big Pine
         Bishop Reservation, Bishop
         Bridgeport Indian Colony, Bridgeport
         Death Valley Indian Community, Timbisha Shoshone Tribe, Death Valley
         Lone Pine Reservation, Lone Pine
NV   Battle Mountain Colony, Battle Mountian
         Duck Valley Reservation, Owyhee
         Duckwater Reservation, Duckwater
         Elko Colony, Elko
         Ely Colony, Ely
         Fallon Colony and Reservation, Fallon
         Fort McDermitt Reservation, McDermitt, NV & OR
         Ruby Valley Reservation, Ruby Valley
         South Fork and Odgers Ranch Reservation, Lee
         Winnemucca Colony, Winnemucca
         Yomba Reservation, Yomba
UT    Goshute Reservation, Ibapah
         Skull Valley Reservation, Grantsville
Year History
1825 Met by Jedediah Smith, may have been preceded by Old Greenwood
1849 Panamint of California first contacted by Whites, negatively affected by Gold Rush, livestock depleted food supplies
1851 Smallpox epidemic
1862 Began attacking stage lines and pony express, Army massacred large number of tribe at Steptoe Valley
1863 U.S. treaty with Western Shoshone at Ruby Valley
1933 Panamint (Timbasha) ancestral lands taken to create Death Valley National Monument
1983 Timbasha Shoshone federally recognized
2000 Desert Protection Act dictated that the Timbisha Shoshone are to be given a viable reservation
2004 President Bush signed Western Shoshone Distribution Bill forcibly distributing $145 million to tribes for their 24 million claimed acres against wishes of tribe thereby claiming  termination of the Ruby Valley Treaty
Year Total Population CA ID NV UT   Source
1700 4,500 500 400 2,900 700   NAHDB calculation
1800 4,500 500 400 2,900 700   NAHDB calculation
1845 4,500         Mooney estimate (included 2,000 Northern Paiute)
1900 2,100 200   1,800 100   NAHDB calculation
1910 1,800         Census
1937 1,201         U. S. Indian Office
1989 3,400         BIA
2000 6,000 500   5,200 300   NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
CA Koso, ID/WY Northern Shoshoni, OK Comanche
Western Shoshoni Sites
Ancient Altered States
Ancient Artists of the Desert
"Ascertaining" Tonopah's Origin
Archeological Resources
Big Pine Reservation
Bishop Reservation
Black the West poem by Sunderland
California Trail - Western Shoshone History
China Lake: Prehistoric Human Occupation ...
Duck Valley Indian Reservation
Duck Valley Reservation Map
Duckwater Reservation
Duckwater Shoshone Tribe
EIS Timbasha Shoshone Homeland Act (Federal Register)
Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe
Fort Ruby, Ruby Valley, NV
Gold, Greed, and Genocide
The Gold Rush Legacy:  Greed, Pollution, and Genocide
Goshute Indian Reservation
Goshute Indian Reservation Case Study
Goshute Tribe
Granite Mountains Archeological Survey
Great Basin
Great Basin Culture and Ethnobotany
Halloran Spring: Cultural Resources
Indian Wells Valley
Just Earth
Legend of Manitou Springs
Lewis and Clark (Western Shoshoni mentioned)
Litigation to Protect Western Shoshone Territorial Integrity
Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone Reservation
Mending broken promises ...
Mojave Desert Petroglyphs at Black Canyon
Native Americans Get Some of Their Land Back from a National Park
Native Americans and the Environment - Great Basin
Newe Sogobia
Newe Sogobia - Western Shoshone Homeland
No Dirty Gold
Panamint (Language)
Panamint (Timbasha) Baskets
Relationships of Native American Cultures to NEMO Lands
Relationships of Native American Cultures to Death Valley Area
Ruby Valley Treaty
Shoshone Bibliography
Shoshone/Paiute Tribes History/Links
Shoshoni Language
Shoshoni Linguistic Lineage
Shundahai Network
Skull Valley Indian Reservation
Skull Valley Reservation
Some Western Shoshoni Myths
Te-Moak Shoshone Western Band Tribe
Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone Indians
Timbasha Shoshone Death Valley Land Restoration Project
Timbasha Shoshone Homeland Act
Timbasha Shoshone Images
Timbisha Shoshone Reservation
Timbisha Shoshone Tribe
Timbisha Shoshone Tribe Face Eviction
Timbisha Shoshone Tribe of Death Valley
Timbisha Shoshone Web Site
Treaty With the Western Shoshoni
Tribal Maps
Wells Band of Western Shoshone
Western Shoshone
Western Shoshone
Western Shoshone Ancestral Lands
Western Shoshoni Cannibal Myths
Western Shoshone Defense Project
Western Shoshone Indian Tribe
Western Shoshone:  Law Frees Funds for Indian Land
Western Shoshone (Nevada)
Western Shoshoni of Nevada
Western Shoshone Push for Answers ...
Western Shoshone Struggle Earn World Recognition
Western Shoshone Territory
What Battle?  What Mountain?
White Pot Mine
White Trail in the Sky
Wolf Protector of Women

Last updated 08/23/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press