Tiwa Pueblos



Languages: Northern Tiwa and Southern Tiwa
Family: Tiwa
Stock: Kiowa-Towa
Phylum: Kiowa Tamoan
Macro-Culture: Southwestern
Speakers Northern (927), Southern (1,631)  1980 Census
      The Tiwa Pueblos were a sedentary agricultural culture of the greater Pueblo culture.  The northern division was located about and including present Taos and Picuris Pueblos.  The southern group of 30 or so villages ranged from above Bernalillo to about the Rio Grande to a wide area south of but within 30 miles of Albuquerque.  They were early victims of the Spanish conquest and were preyed upon by the Navajos, Apaches, Comanches, and Utes. 
Aboriginal Locations
NM  35 villages
Arizona Present Locations
NM   Isleta Pueblo, Isleta
          Picuris Pueblo, Picuris
          Sandia Pueblo, Sandia Pueblo
          Taos Pueblo, Taos Pueblo
Year History
1540 Coronado set out to conquer Cibola with 300 men, 1,000 horses, 6 friars, captured two Tiwa Pueblos
1573 Royal Ordinance of King Phillip II protected Indians from conquest
1582 Antonio de Espejo  approached Puaray Pueblo which Coronado had attacked, Indians fled
1598 Juan de Onate led 400 soldiers, friars, colonists; forced Pueblos to swear vassalage to Spain, declared the region a Franciscan missionary province which he divided into seven districts; Tiwa rebelled along with Acoma and Tompiro, villages destroyed, 500 enslaved but later escaped
1607 Onate removed from governorship
1609 New governor Pedro de Peralta founded Santa Fe, built palace with Pueblo labor, disregarded protection laws
1628 Numerous churches built, 30 friars added, native religions banned
1635 Taos priest killed and his vestments used in a Native ceremony
1640 Severe drought, thousands died
1663 Severe drought for several years, thousands died
1680 Pueblo Revolt against Spanish led by San Juan Tewa Pope, 500 Spanish slaughtered in siege of Santa Fe, Piro Pueblos fled with the Spanish to Texas
1694 Spanish attack under Vargas killed 84, 361 prisoners removed to Santa Fe, reconquest destroyed Patoqua, Jemez reoccupied Gyuiswa
1696 Tiwa killed 26 in rebellion, took refuge with Apache and Navajo
1699 Picuris Pueblo took refuge with Eastern Apache but were enslaved,
1700 Comanche and Ute raids began
1706 Enslaved Picuris rescued by Spanish
1709 Isleta Pueblo reestablished
1720 Trade fairs began with nomadic tribes
1742 Sandia Indians returned to build a new pueblo near their old one
1777 Gov. Juan Bautista de Anza arranged peace between Pueblos and all nomadic tribes except Apache
1821 Mexican Independence, violence fanned by Mexican slaving raids
1846 Mexican-American War, small garrison at Taos
1913 Pueblo land claims recognized
Year U.S. Population Source
1630 11,500 Fray Alonzo de Benevides
1680 10,000 Fray Augustin de Vetancurt
1700 1,600 NAHDB calculation
1706 1,000 Fray Juan Alvarez
1752 1,227 New Mexico Census
1797 1,497 Fray Francisco de Hezio
1800 1,900 NAHDB calculation
1810 1,633 New Mexico Census
1821 1,989 Fr. Jose Pedro Rubin de Celis
1,163 1,869 Dozier
1900 1,613 Dozier
1900 1,600 NAHDB calculation
1910 1,650 Census
1927 2,122 US Indian Office
1930 2,027 Dozier
1948 2,648 Dozier
1964 4,205 Dozier
1973 5,542 BIA
1989 5,953 BIA
2000 6,600 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Piro Pueblos
 Tiwa Sites:
1600 Beginnings
Albuquerque's Environmental Story
Dixon, Maynard, Round Dance
Driving Cross-Country for a Tiwa Taco
First American Revolution - 1680
Huma, Rodina, Hopi-Tiwa,rondina-huma-pottery,764947.html
Isleta Casino and Resort
Isleta Horsehair Tableta Bowl
Isleta Pueblo
Land, Rights, Laws:  Issues of Native Title
Northern Tiwa Language
Northern Tiwa Pottery
Otermin, Antonio de
Picuris Pueblo
Pueblo Culture and Ethnobotany
Pueblo of Sandia History
Sandia Pueblo
Sandia Pueblo
Soge Track, Jo Ann
Southern Tiwa Language
Taos Pueblo
Time When the Rocks Were Soft
Tiwa Language
Tiwa Linguistic Lineage

Last updated 03/17/05   Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press