Language: Lushootseed
Family: Twana
Stock: Central Salish
Phylum: Salishan
Macro-Culture: Northwest
Speakers 60    1990 M. D. Kincade (total language)
     The Swinomish were sedentary coastal hunter/gatherers and relied heavily on fishing.  They were located on the northern end of Whidbey Island and about the mouth of the Skagit River. They are closely related to the Skagit, with whom they are often combined.  They suffered from the White influx.
Aboriginal Locations (Villages)
WA  (15)
Present Locations
WA   Swinomish Indian Tribal Community, La Conner
Year History
1787 Strait of Juan de Fuca discovered by Charles Barkley
1790 Manual Quimper explored both shores of strait
1792 Area charted by Capt. George Vancouver
1827 Hudson Bay Company founded Fort Langley
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers began, conflicts followed
1855 Treaty of Point Elliot  
1870  Smallpox epidemic
Year  Population Source
1700 700 NAHDB calculation 
1800 700 NAHDB calculation
1853 300 Gibbs estimate
1900 100 NAHDB calculation
1910 56 Census
1937 200 US Indian Office
2000 750 NAHDB calculation
2004 778 IHC
Other speakers of the same language:
Skagit, Snohomish
Swinomish Sites:
Free Swinomish
Lushootseed Language
Lushootseed Linguistic Lineage
Northern Lights Casino
Northwest Coast Culture and Ethnobotany
Swinomish Indian Tribal Community
Swinomish Indian Tribe
Swinomish Tribal Profile
Swinomish Tribe
Treaty of Point Elliot
Vancouver Begins British Survey of Puget Sound, 1792

Last updated 03/06/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press