Language: Five Nations
Family: Northern Iroquoian
Stock: Iroquoian
Phylum: Macro-Siouan
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
      The Susquehanna were a bellicose sedentary hunter/ farmer nation. They lived along the Susquehanna River with only one of their 20 or so villages in New York. They were destroyed by the Whites and their close relatives, the Iroquois (Beaver Wars), who absorbed the survivors. Most of the few descendants are now enumerated with the Oklahoma Iroquois.
Aboriginal Locations Subdivisions [(# of Villages)
NY    Carantouan (1)
PA     Kaiquariegahaga, Ohongeeoquena, Seconondihago, Usququhaga, Wyoming, Wysox (19)
Present Locations
OK  Remnants confederated into the Iroquois in Susquehannock Nation, Miami
Year History
1608 Met Captain John Smith when he was exploring Chesapeake Bay
1610 Attacked the Potomac (Powhatan) villages in northern Virginia
1614 Dutch had established a trading post on the Hudson River
1615 Etienne Brulé  reached the Susquehannock villages on the upper Susquehanna River; French allied with tribe
1626 Susquehannock attacked the Delaware
1630 Dutch began trading with the Susquehannock; the Susquehannock soon became well armed
1631 William Claiborne established a trading post on Kent Island in upper Chesapeake Bay; Susquehannock traded with the French in Canada (through the Huron), the Dutch on Delaware Bay, and the English in Virginia.
1638 Swedish settlements on the Delaware River, by then the Delaware were entirely subject to the Susquehannock
1642 The governor of Maryland had declared the Susquehannock were enemies of the colony and to be shot on sight
1645 Peace treaty with Maryland
1646 Susquehannock extended their dominion south from the Susquehanna to the Potomac River
1649 Susquehannock fighting with Virginia Puritans in northern Maryland
1651 Mohawk and Oneida attacked Susquehannock villages
1652 Signed a treaty with Maryland ceding much of the lower Susquehanna Valley
1654 Smallpox epidemic, fighting slowed
1655 Dutch took over Swedish settlements; Susquehannock war began with Seneca, Cayuga, and Onondaga; Susquehannock allied in war with Shawnee, Delaware, Nanticoke, Conoy, Saponi, and Tutelo
1656 Susquehannock pushed down the eastern branch of the Susquehanna before making a peace agreement with the Mohawk
1658 War with western Iroquois, Shawnee brought into war as Susquehannock allies but were quickly defeated and dispersed
1661 Susquehannock smallpox epidemic leaving only 300 warriors
1663 Turned back a major Iroquois invasion with English help
1664 British seized New York from the Dutch
1666 Maryland renewed its treaty with the Susquehannock
1669 Asked Iroquois for peace but Iroquois killed the ambassador who brought the peace offer
1675 Susquehannock surrendered to the Iroquois; survivors settled on the upper Potomac River at the invitation of the Maryland's governor; Colonel John Washington (great-grandfather of George) attacked the tribe with 1,000 men; Susquehannock launched a series of retaliatory raids on the Virginia and Maryland frontier; Susquehannock moved north but were attacked by Maryland militia near Columbia
1676 Surviving Susquehannock surrendered to the Iroquois
1763 20 surviving Susquehannock, all Christians beaten to death by vigilantes, the Paxton boys
Year Total Population NY PA Source
1600 5,000 500 4,500 Mooney estimate
1700 300   300 NAHDB calculation
1800 0     NAHDB calculation
1900 0     NAHDB calculation 
2000 0     NAHDB calculation 
Other speakers of the same language:
Susquehannock Sites:
Iroquoian Language Family
Iroquois Indian Clothing (Children's Page)
Iroquois Language and Song
Land of the Susquehannock
Susquehannock Authors
Susquehannock History
Susquehannock Indian History
Susquehannock Indians of the Eastern Shore
Susquehannock Language (Conestoga)
Susquehannock War
Where Are the Susquehannock?

Last updated 08/30/05  Copyright © 2005 by Four Directions Press