Southern California Culture

Southern California Cultural Traits

1.   Semi-sedentary hunter/gatherers
.  Acorns most important food
.  Yucca important food in spring
.  Hunted mostly small game; herded rabbits into human hair nets; bows usually made of juniper
2.   Practiced Chungishnich religion
.   Strict incest taboos
..  Two moieties (Wildcat and Coyote); must marry outside of moiety
..  Patrilineal to five generations
.   Annual mourning ceremony
.   Puberty rites of passage:
..  Male Toloache (Datura) Ceremony
..  Female hot rocks on stomach in pit
.   Bird Songs which remember history, morals, law, creation, migrations
.   Monogamous
.   Shaman based
3.   Peaceful
4.   Communal
5.   Excellent basket weavers using coiled technique
6.   Usually lived in domed wickiups thatched with cattails or tules
7.   Traded extensively

Southern California Culture languages and tribes:

Phylum / Stock / Family / Language Tribe
Aztec-Tanoan / Uto-Aztecan / Takic / Northern Takic Gabrielino
Kitanemuk
Serrano
Vanyume
Aztec-Tanoan / Uto-Aztecan / Takic / Southern Takic Cahuilla
Cupeño
Juaneño
Luiseño
Hokan / Western Hokan / Yuman / Delta-California Yuman Diegueño
 
Southern California Ethnobotany  
Common Name Scientific Name Use Comment
Anderson's Wolfberry Lycium andersonii Gray Food Berries eaten fresh, boiled into mush, or dried and ground into flour
Arizona Popcornflower Plagiobothrys arizonicus (Gray) Greene ex Gray Dye Red coating on outside leaves and lower stems used to paint the body and face
Arrowweed Pluchea sericea (Nutt.) Coville Food Roots roasted and eaten
Building Used for thatching
Weapons Used to make arrow shafts
Bailey's Buckwheat Eriogonum baileyi S. Wats. Drink Seeds ground into meal and mixed with water
Food Seeds ground and eaten raw or made into mush or cakes
Basket Rush Juncus textilis Buch. Basketry Rushes made into baskets used for collecting foods, leeching acorn meal, and for finely woven baskets
Beavertail Pricklypear Opuntia basilaris Engelm. & Bigelow Food Fruit eaten fresh or dried for later use, seeds ground into mush, buds cooked and eaten, joints boiled and eaten as greens
Belaperone Justicia californica (Benth.) D. Gibson Food Flower sucked for the nectar
Birchleaf Mountain Mahogany Cercocarpus montanus var. glaber (S. Wats.) F.L. Martin Tools Used to make digging sticks
Weapons Used to make bows, arrows, and clubs
Bigberry Manzanita Arctostaphylos glauca Lindl. Drink Mashed fruit mixed with water
Food Berries eaten fresh, dried and stored, ground into mush
Bigelow's Nolina Nolina bigelovii (Torr.) S. Wats. Food Stalk baked in pit and eaten
Birdfoot Cliffbrake Pellaea mucronata (D.C. Eat.) D.C. Eat. Drink Fronds used to make a tea
Black Sage Salvia mellifera Greene Food Seeds used for food
Black Willow Salix nigra Marsh. Medicine Various aspirin uses
Basketry Used as a foundation in coiled basketry and rodent proof graineries
Bladderpod Spiderflower Cleome isomeris Greene Food Seeds and flowers used
Blue Elderberry Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli Food Berries eaten fresh, dried for later use, made into jams, jellies, sauces
Medicinal Numerous
Basketry Stems, bark, leaves used to make 4 colors of dye
Music Stems used to make clapper sticks and whistles
Weapons Stems used to make arrows
Branched Pencil Cholla Opuntia ramosissima Engelm. Food Fruit eaten fresh or dried, stalks with thorns removed boiled into soup or dried for later use
Broadleaf Cattail Typha latifolia L. Food Roots and young shoots eaten raw, roots dried and ground into a meal, pollen used to  make cakes and mush, stems peeled and eaten, roots and inner stalks baked in ashes and eaten, 
Housing Stalks used for matting material and bedding, leaves used for thatch
Ceremony Stalks used in making ceremonial bundles
Browneye's Camissonia claviformis ssp. claviformis Food Leaves used for greens
Brownspined Pricklypear Opuntia californica var. parkeri (Coult.) Pinkava Food Berries an stems important food source
Blue Paloverde Parkinsonia florida (Benth. ex Gray) S. Wats. Food Dried beans ground into flour and used to make mush or cakes
Buckhorn Cholla Opuntia acanthocarpa Engelm. & Bigelow Food Fruit eaten fresh or dried for later use, seeds ground into mush, buds cooked and eaten
Bulrush Scirpus sp. Food Roots ground to make flour, pollen used to make cakes, seeds eaten raw or ground into mush, tender young shoots eaten raw, tubers eaten as snack food mostly by children, 
Building Stalks used for roofing and thatching
Misc. Stalks used for bedding, mats, and weaving materials
Ceremony Used to make ceremonial bundles for image burning ceremony
Toys Plant used by children to make whips
California Barrelcactus Ferocactus cylindraceus var. cylindraceus Drink Plant used to obtain water, blossoms soaked in water to make refreshing drink
Food Buds/flowers eaten fresh, parboiled, or baked in a pit, berries and stems eaten
Tool Body of plant used as a cooking vessel
California Blackberry Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schlecht. Food Berries eaten fresh and dried
California Black Oak Quercus kelloggii Newberry Food Acorns stored up to one year, ground, leached, cooked into mush, soup, cakes, bread
California Buckeye Aesculus californica (Spach) Nutt. Poison Ground seeds used to kill fish
Famine food Ground seeds leached, cooked, eaten
California Fan Palm Washingtonia filifera (L. Linden) H. Wendl. Drink Fruit soaked in water
Food Fruit eaten fresh, dried for later use to be ground into mush, made into jelly,
Housing Fronds used for thatching
California Flannelbush or Fremontia Fremontodendron californicum (Torr.) Coville Cordage Barks used for tying acorn graineries, making netting, etc.
Tools Wood used to make cradle boards
California Goldfields Lasthenia californica DC. ex Lindl. Food Parched seeds ground into flour to make mush
California Goosefoot Chenopodium californicum (S. Wats.) S. Wats. Food Milky sap made into chewing gum, ground seeds made into flour, boiled shoots and leaves eaten as greens
California Juniper Juniperus californica Carr. Food Berries eaten fresh, dried and ground or saved for future use, boiled (important famine food)
Medicine Numerous uses
Weapons Bows made from wood
California Live Oak Quercus agrifolia Née Food Acorns stored up to one year, ground, leached, cooked into mush, soup, cakes, bread
California Peony Paeonia californica Nutt. Food Leaves cooked as greens, buds cooked
California Poppy Eschscholzia californica Cham. Food Leaves used as greens
California Sagebrush Artemisia californica Less. Medicine Numerous uses
California Scrub Oak Quercus dumosa Nutt. Food Acorns stored up to one year, ground, leached, cooked into mush, soup, cakes, bread
California Strawberry Fragaria vesca ssp. californica (Cham. & Schlecht.) Staudt Food Berries eaten fresh
California Sycamore Platanus racemosa Nutt. Housing Limbs used in building
Canyon Live Oak Quercus chrysolepis Liebm. Food Acorns stored up to one year, ground, leached, cooked into mush, soup, cakes, bread
Catclaw Acacia Acacia greggii Gray Food Pods eaten fresh or dried, ground into flour to make mush or cakes
Chia Salvia columbariae Benth. Drink Seeds mixed into water
Food Seeds eaten raw, ground into flour to make mush or cakes, seeds eaten on long journeys
Medicine Several uses
Cholla Opuntia bigelovii Engelm. Food Buds, fruit, and stems eaten
Cleveland's Tobacco Nicotiana clevelandii Gray Ceremony Tobacco leaves smoked or chewed as part of almost all ceremonies, including by shamans
Clustered Tarweed Hemizonia fasciculata (DC.) Torr. & Gray Famine Food Entire plant, including seeds, used
Common Deerweed Lotus scoparius (Nutt.) Ottley Cleaner Roots used for soap
Common Chamise Adenostoma fasciculatum Hook. & Arn. Weapons Wood used for bows and arrows, gum used to attach arrowheads and feathers to shaft
Common Goldenstars Bloomeria crocea var. aurea (Kellogg) Ingram Food Bulb eaten
Common Reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Music Used to make flutes
Common Sunflower Helianthus annuus L. Food Seeds dried and eaten or ground into flour with other seeds
Conjested Snakelily Dichelostemma capitatum ssp. capitatum Food Corms eaten raw or cooked
Cooper's Broomrape Orobanche cooperi ssp. cooperi Food Root peeled and eaten
Cottontop Cactus Echinocactus polycephalus Engelm. & Bigelow Food Berries and stems were an important and reliable food source
Coulter Pine Pinus coulteri D. Don Basketry Needles used in basketry
Food Nuts eaten raw, roasted, or stored for later use
Coyote Mint Monardella villosa Benth. Medicine Several uses
Creosotebush Larrea tridentata var. tridentata Medicine Numerous uses
Cuman Ragweed Ambrosia psilostachya DC. Cleaner Concoction of stems and leaves used after hair wash for dandruff
Curlleaf Mountain Mahogany Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt. Tools Used to make digging sticks
Weapons Used to make bows, arrows, clubs
Datura or Jimson Weed or Sacred Thornapple Datura wrightii Regel Medicine Numerous Uses
Ceremony Hallucinogen (Deadly poisonous)
Deer Grass Muhlenbergia rigens (Benth.) A.S. Hitchc. Basketry Stalks used as the foundation in coiled baskets
Desert Agave Agave deserti Engelm. Food Leaves and stalks baked and eaten or dried for future use
Dye Burned stalks burned and used for tattoos
Misc. Dried leaves pounded and made into carrying bags, sandals, cordage, nets, women's skirts, bow strings, snares, 
Tools Thorns used as awls in basket weaving and for tattooing
Desert Almond Prunus fasciculata (Torr.) Gray Food Fruit eaten
Weapons Wood used in making arrow fore shafts
Desert Dandilion Malacothrix californica DC. Food Seeds used for food
Desert Ironwood Olneya tesota Gray Food Seeds and pods ground into flour
Tools Extremely hard wood used for digging sticks
Weapons Extremely hard wood used for making clubs and throwing sticks
Desert Lily Hesperocallis undulata Gray Food Bulb eaten raw or oven pit baked
Desert Panicgrass Panicum urvilleanum Kunth Food Singed seeds boiled and made into gruel
Desert Tobacco Nicotiana obtusifolia var. obtusifolia Ceremony Tobacco leaves smoked or chewed as part of almost all ceremonies, including by shamans
Desert Willow Chilopsis linearis (Cav.) Sweet Food Seed pods and blossoms used for food
Weapons Wood used to make bows
Misc. Bark used to make shirts, breach cloths, nets
Devilshorn Proboscidea althaeifolia (Benth.) Dcne. Tools Hooked horns used as a tool for mending basketry and pottery
Food Seeds used
Doubleclaw Proboscidea parviflora (Woot.) Woot. & Standl. Basketry Used extensively in basket weaving
Eastern Mojave Buckwheat Eriogonum fasciculatum Benth. Medicine Numerous uses
Eastwood's Manzanita Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastw. Food Berries eaten fresh or dried, ground into flour to make mush, seeds ground into a meal to make mush
Drink Mash fruit mixed with water and strained into a drink
Englemann's Oak Quercus engelmannii Greene Food Acorns stored up to one year, ground, leached, cooked into mush, soup, cakes, bread
Fremont's Cottonwood Populus fremontii S. Wats. Famine Food Inner bark eaten
Tender Dried inner bark used with flint to start fires
Tools Wood used to make mortars
Fremont's Desertthorn Lycium fremontii Gray Food Berries eaten fresh, boiled into mush, or dried and ground into flour
Fremont's Goosefoot Chenopodium fremontii S. Wats. Food Boiled shoots and leaves eaten as greens
Fringed Ameranth Amaranthus fimbriatus (Torr.) Benth. ex S. Wats. Food Parched seeds ground into flour the make mush, boiled leaves eaten as greens or used a potherbs
Giantreed Arundo donax L. Music Used to make flutes, usually played by men
Giant Wildrye Leymus condensatus (J. Presl) A. Löve Weapons Fire hardened stems used to make arrows
Goldenbowl Mariposa Lily Calochortus concolor (Baker) Purdy Food Bulbs roasted in hot ash pits or steamed prior to eating
Hairy Yerbasanta Eriodictyon trichocalyx Heller Medicine Numerous uses
Drink Dried or fresh leaves boiled to make tea
Hartweg's Twinevine Funastrum cynanchoides ssp. heterophyllum (Vail) Kartesz Food Plant eaten raw with salt
Hollyleaf Cherry Prunus americana Marsh. Food Fruit eaten fresh
Famine food Seed cracked, ground, leached, cooked, eaten
Hollyleaf Redberry Rhamnus ilicifolia Kellogg Medicine Numerous uses
Honey Mesquite Prosopis glandulosa Torr. Food Beans eaten raw, roasted, ground into flour and made into cakes
Drink Green beans mixed with water
Drink Blossoms used to make tea
Netting Bark pounded into carrying net for pottery
Incense Cedar Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin Building Bark used to make temporary shelters, wood used in construction
Indianhemp Apocynum cannabinum L. Clothing Bark fiber made into twine to make women's aprons
Cordage Inner bark made into twine to make fishing and hunting nets and carrying sacks
Weapons Inner bark used to make bow strings and slings
Iodinebush Allenrolfea occidentalis (S. Wats.) Kuntze Food Ground seed flour made into mush or dampened, shaped, dried, and eaten as a cookie
Drink Ground seed flour and water made into a drink
Indian Tea Ephedra viridis Coville Food Seeds eaten
Drink Leafless needles boiled into tea
Interior Live Oak Quercus wislizeni A. DC. Food Acorns stored up to one year, ground, leached, cooked into mush, soup, cakes, bread
Jeffrey Pine Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. Basketry Pine needles used to make baskets
Jojoba Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneid. Drink Ground nuts made into coffee-like drink
Food Nuts eaten
Joshua Tree Yucca brevifolia Engelm. Food Immature fruits and pods used for food
Dye Roots used as dye
Basketry Roots
Large Leatherroot Hoita macrostachya (DC.) Rydb. Dye Leaves boiled with basket weeds as a yellow dye
Lemonade Sumac Rhus integrifolia (Nutt.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Brewer & S. Wats. Drink Berries soaked in water for beverage
Leopold's Rush Juncus acutus ssp. leopoldii (Parl.) Snog. Basketry Rushes made into baskets used for collecting foods, leeching acorn meal, and for finely woven baskets
Littleleaf Mountain Mahogany Cercocarpus intricatus S. Wats. Tools Used to make digging sticks
Weapons Used to make bows, arrows, clubs
Little Hogweed Portulaca oleracea L. Food Plant used for greens
Marshland Goosefoot Chenopodium humile Hook. Food Boiled shoots and leaves eaten as greens
Mertens' Rush Juncus mertensianus Bong. Basketry Rushes used to make coiled and twined baskets
Miner's Lettuce Claytonia perfoliata ssp. perfoliata Food Leaves eaten fresh or boiled as greens
Missouri Gourd Cucurbita foetidissima Kunth Cleaner Ground shell used as shampoo, root and pepo (fruit) used as a soap and bleach
Medicine Numerous uses
Food Seeds ground into flour to make mush
Tools Dried gourds used to make ladles
Music Dried gourds used to make rattles
Mojave Yucca Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies Food Unopened flowers boiled and eaten; open flowers eaten raw or cooked stem eaten raw or pit baked
Clothing Dried leaved pounded into cloth or material for making sandals
Basketry Leaves and root stock used
Mustang Mounainbalm Monardella lanceolata Gray Drink Plant used to make tea
Naked Buckwheat Eriogonum nudum var. pubiflorum Benth. Utensil Hollow stems used as straws
Nettleleaf Goosefoot Chenopodium murale L. Food Boiled shoots and leaves eaten as greens
Nevada Jointfir Ephedra nevadensis S. Wats. Drink Fresh or dried twigs used to make tea
Ocotillo Fouquieria splendens Engelm. Food Fresh blossoms eaten, parched seed ground into flour to make mush or cakes
Drink Fresh blossoms soaked in water to make summer drink
One-Leaf Pinon Pine or Singleleaf Pine Pinus monophylla Torr. & Frém. Food Nuts eaten raw, roasted, boiled, ground into flour or stored for future use, used as baby food, pitch chewed as chewing gum
Drink Ground nuts mixed with water
Cooking Nuts used to improve taste of meat
Basketry Needles and roots in making baskets, pitch used to waterproof baskets
Housing Bark used for roofing material
Glue Pitch used to repair baskets, pottery and to attach arrowheads to shaft
Our Lord's Candle Yucca or Chaparral Yucca Yucca whipplei Torr. Food (important spring food) Unopened flowers boiled and eaten; open flowers eaten raw or cooked stem eaten raw or pit baked
Clothes Dried leaved pounded into cloth or material for making sandals
Basketry Leaves and root stock used
Pacific Dewberry Rubus vitifolius Cham. & Schlecht. Food Fruit used for food
Pacific Onion Allium validum S. Wats. Food Bulbs eaten raw or used to flavor other food
Pacific Rush Juncus effusus var. pacificus Fern. & Wieg. Basketry Rushes made into baskets
Pale Serviceberry Amelanchier pallida Greene Food Berries eaten fresh and dried for future use
Pale Springbeauty  Claytonia exigua Torr. & Gray Food Leaves eaten fresh or boiled as greens
Palmer's Mariposa Lily Calochortus palmeri S. Wats. Food Bulbs roasted in hot ash pit or steamed prior to eating
Parish's Heathgoldenrod Ericameria parishii (Greene) Hall Food Seeds used for food
Parry Manzanita Arctostaphylos parryana Lemmon Food Ground berry pulp eaten
Parry Pinyon Pinus quadrifolia Parl. ex Sudworth Food Nuts eaten raw or roasted or ground into flour to make mush, used as a baby food
Glue Pitch used as an adhesive for mending pottery and baskets
Building Bark and wood used
Basketry Needles and roots used
Drink Ground nuts mixed with water
Pointleaf Manzanita Arctostaphylos pungens Kunth Drink Mashed fruit mixed with water
Food Berries eaten fresh, dried and stored, ground and made into mush or cakes
Prickly Pear Opuntia engelmannii var. engelmannii Food Fruit eaten raw and dried for future use, tunas cooked
Weapons Sharp thorns used to make small arrows for bird hunting
Redshank Adenostoma sparsifolium Torr. Food Seeds eaten
Medicine Numerous
Weapons Wood used to make arrowheads
Clothes Fibrous stripped bark used to make women's skirts
Building Wood important construction material
Roughstem Blazingstar Mentzelia oreophila J. Darl. Food Parched seeds ground into flour to make mush
Roundleaf Leatherroot Hoita orbicularis (Lindl.) Rydb. Food Plant used for greens
Salt Rush Juncus lesueurii Boland. Basketry Rushes made into baskets
Scarlet Bugler Penstemon centranthifolius Benth. Food Flowers sucked for the good taste
Shepherd's Purse Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Food Seeds gathered for food, leaves eaten as greens
Skunkbush Sumac Rhus trilobata Nutt. Drink Berries mixed with water
Food Berries eaten fresh, dried, ground into flour
Dye Bark and leaves
Basketry Important component of basketry
Shining Pepperwood Lepidium nitidum Nutt. Food Seeds used for food, leaves used for greens
Smallflower Soapplant Chlorogalum parviflorum S. Wats. Food Bulb eaten
Spreading Dogbane Apocynum androsaemifolium L. Cordage Spun into twine, woven into rope
Medicine Several applications
Stinging Nettle Urtica dioica ssp. holosericea (Nutt.) Thorne Cordage Stems furnished string and twine for netting, bow strings, thatching, etc.
Food Leaves boiled as greens or to make soup
Strawberry Cactus Mammillaria dioica K. Brandeg. Food Small fruits eaten raw
Sugar Pine Pinus lambertiana Dougl. Snack Sweet pitch chewed for gum
Food Nuts sometimes eaten
Sugar Sumac Rhus ovata S. Wats Food Berries eaten fresh, dried for later use, ground into flour
Teddybear Cholla Opuntia bigelovii Engelm. Food Buds and fruit eaten
Telegraphweed Heterotheca grandiflora Nutt. Weapons Tall stems used to make arrows
Texas Indian Painbrush Castilleja foliolosa Hook. & Arn. Food Flowers picked by children to suck out the nectar
Thistle Sage Rubus vitifolius Cham. & Schlecht. Food Seeds used for food
Tracy Willow Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schlecht. Basketry Used as a foundation in coiled basketry and rodent proof graineries
Tree Tobacco Nicotiana glauca Graham Ceremony Tobacco leaves smoked or chewed as part of almost all ceremonies, including by shamans
Toyon Heteromeles arbutifolia var. arbutifolia Food Berries eaten raw, cooked, or dried for later use
Tule Scirpus sp. Basketry Used to make throw-away baskets
Housing Used as thatch and mats
Tuna Cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) P. Mill. Food Fruit eaten fresh or dried for later use, seeds ground into mush, buds cooked and eaten, joints boiled and eaten as greens
Valley Grape Vitis girdiana Munson Food Fruit eaten raw, dried into raisins, cooked into mush
Drink Fruit used to make wine
Watercress Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek Food Pant used for greens
Wavyleaf Soapplant Chlorogalum pomeridianum (DC.) Kunth Food Young shoots used as a pot herb
Cleaner Saponaceous material used as shampoo, crushed bulb used as soap
Poison Saponaceous material used as a stupefying agent placed into water to catch fish
Misc. Coarse husk fibers from bulb tied together to make cleaning brush and hair brush
Western Chokecherry Prunus virginiana var. demissa (Nutt.) Torr. Food Fruit used for food
Western Honey Mesquite Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana (L. Benson) M.C. Johnston Drink Blossoms used to make tea, pods crushed into a pulpy juice, pod meal mixed with water
Food Dried pods ground into meal to make mush and cakes, pods eaten fresh, roasted blossoms boiled and eaten, 
Clothing Bark pounded and pulled to make a soft cloth for clothes and diapers
Cordage Bark pounded to make cordage
Pottery Bark pounded to make netting for pottery
Weapons Gum used as an adhesive to make arrows, limbs used to make bows
Whitedaisey Tidytips Layia glandulosa (Hook.) Hook. & Arn. Food Seeds used for food
White Sage Salvia apiana Jepson Shampoo Crushed leaves and water
Food Young stalks eaten raw, seeds eaten
Camouflage Rubbed on skin to remove body odor for hunting
Ceremony Burned for cleansing (smudging)
Whitestem Blazingstar Mentzelia veatchiana Kellogg Food Parched seeds ground into flour to make mush
Wild Buckwheat Eriogonum sp. Food Shoots and seeds used for food
Wild Celery Apium graveolens L. Food Plant used for greens
Winding Mariposa Lily Calochortus flexuosus S. Wats. Food Bulbs roasted in hot ash pit or steamed prior to eating
Woolypod Milkweed Asclepias eriocarpa Benth. Food Sap boiled in water to make chewing gum, 
Cordage Stem fiber twine used to make nets, aprons, etc.
Weapons Stem fiber twine used to make bow strings and slings
Wormwood Artemisia dracunculus L. Food Seeds used for food
Yellowray Goldfields Lasthenia glabrata Lindl. Food Parched seeds eaten dry or ground into flour to make mush
Yellow Yarrow Eriophyllum confertiflorum (DC.) Gray Food Parched seeds ground into flour
Yerba Buena Clinopodium douglasii (Benth.) Kuntze Medicine Numerous uses
Drink Leaves made into tea, sometimes with mint
Yerba Mansa Anemopsis californica (Nutt.) Hook. & Arn. Medicine Numerous uses
ETHNOBOTANY BIBLIOGRAPHY
     Bean, Lowell John and Katherine Siva Saubel 1972 Temalpakh (From the Earth); Cahuilla Indian Knowledge and Usage of Plants. Banning, CA. Malki Museum Press
     Hedges, Ken 1986 Santa Ysabel Ethnobotany. San Diego Museum of Man Ethnic Technology Notes, No. 20
     Hinton, Leanne 1975 Notes on La Huerta Diegueno Ethnobotany. Journal of California Anthropology 2:214-222
     Sparkman, Philip S. 1908 The Culture of the Luiseno Indians. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 8(4):187-234 (p. 205)