Language: Snohomish
Family: Twana
Stock: Central Salish
Phylum: Salishan
Macro-Culture: Northwest
Speakers 10 or fewer   1998 J. Brooke, N. Y. Times
   The Snohomish were sedentary coastal hunter/gatherers and relied heavily on fishing.  They were located along the Snohomish River and the southern end of Whidbey Island.  They are often combined with the Snoqualmie though they spoke different languages.  They suffered from the White influx.
Aboriginal Locations (Villages)
WA  (12)
Present Locations
WA  Tulalip Reservation, Marysville
Year History
1787 Strait of Juan de Fuca discovered by Charles Barkley
1788 Visited by Mears
1790 Manual Quimper explored both shores of strait
1792 Area charted by Capt. George Vancouver
1827 Hudson Bay Company founded Fort Langley
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers began, conflicts followed
1847 Arrival of Catholic priest
1855 Treaty of Point Elliot created reservation
1868 School opened by the Sisters of Providence  
1870  Smallpox epidemic
1984 Upper Skagit Reservation established
Year  Population Source
1700 700 NAHDB calculation 
1800 700 NAHDB calculation
1853 300 Gibbs estimate
1900 100 NAHDB calculation
1910 56 Census
1937 200 US Indian Office
2000 400 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Snohomish Sites:
Casto Massacre
Doquebuth's Children
Drying Salon on the Beach for Winter
Lynch Mob Hangs Two Snohomish Indians
Native Americans Foce Settlers to Leave Whidbey Island
Northwest Coast Culture and Ethnobotany
Providence School
Snohomish Grave House
Snohomish Language
Snohomish Linguistic Lineage
Snohomish Tribe Denied Federal Recognition
Story Pole
Treaty of Point Elliot
Vancouver Begins British Survey of Puget Sound, 1792

Last updated 03/03/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press