Language: Muskogee
Family: Muskogee
Stock: Muskogee
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers None
      The Seminole Confederacy formed in Georgia as a result of the Yamasee War. The Oconee, Waxhaw, and Yuchi merged right after the war to form the confederacy, and the Yamasee soon followed.  Sometime after confederation, the Seminole relocated to Florida.
      Once in Florida, the Alabama and some Coushatta joined the confederacy as a result of pressure from White settlers. Some other Muskhogeans may have joined the Seminole in 1778.  A band of Miccosuki joined after an unprovoked attack by Andrew Jackson's forces.  The Creek became the largest component of the Seminole when they joined the confederacy in 1814.
      The Seminole fought three bloody wars (1817, 1842, 1855) with the United States. The third war did not officially end until 1938. Most of the Seminole were relocated to Oklahoma (Removal Act) after the second war, with some remaining in the Everglades.
Aboriginal Locations: Subdivisions (Villages)
Confederacy formed after European arrival
Present Locations
FL    Big Cypress Reservation, Hollywood
        Bobby Henry's Seminole Indian Village, Tampa
        Brighton Reservation, Hollywood
        Florida State Reservation, Hollywood
        Hollywood Reservation, Hollywood
        Oklewaha Band of Yamasee Seminole Indians, Orange Springs
OK  Seminole Tribe, Wewoka
Year History
1716 Nucleus of confederacy formed by Oconee and Yuchi in Stewart County, Georgia
1750 Moved to Florida
1767 Eufaula first Hitchitis to join confederacy
1778 Joined by more Muskhogeans
1788 May have been joined by Icafui
1814 Joined by large number of mostly Muskhogean speaking Creeks after Creek-American War
1817 First Seminole War, American forces led by Andrew Jackson
1819 Spain ceded Florida to U. S.
1823 Ceded lands in the treaty of Ft. Moultrie
1832 Treaty of Paynes Landing bound the tribe to move beyond Mississippi River within 3 years
1835 Long second Seminole War
1842 Seminole leader Oceola captured, those that surrendered relocated to Oklahoma, remainder stayed in Everglades (cost of war, 1,500American troops, $2 million); Seminole losses numbered more than 1,000
1855 Third Seminole War
1938 Official end of Third Seminole War
Year Total Pop. FL OK Source
1700 0     NAHDB calculation
1800 2,000 2,000   NAHDB calculation
1814 5,000       Swanton
1847 340 340     Swanton (Florida only)
1851 2,500   2,500   Swanton (Oklahoma only)
1857 1,907   1,907   Census (Oklahoma only)
1895 358 358     Swanton (Florida only)
1900 2,500 350 2,150 NAHDB calculation 
1919 446 446     Swanton (Florida only)
1930 2,048       Census
1973 4,372       BIA
1981 5,143       BIA
1989 5,643       BIA
2000   1,000 12,000 NAHDB calculation 
2005     12,000   Tribe
Analysis of Confederation
Confederating Ethnie Language Year Estimated Contributed Population
Oconee Mikasuki 1716 700
Yuchi Uchean 1716 500
Waxhaw Catawba 1716 50
Yamasee Mikasuki 1730 300
Alabama Alabaman 1763 500
Pawotki Alabaman 1763 100
Coushatta Alabaman 1795 100
Tamathli Mikasuki 1799 200
Creek Muskogee 1814 3,000
Miccosukee Mikasuki 1817 400
Sawokli Mikasuki 1821 400
Yamasee Mikasuki 1821 100
Calusa So FL Muskogee 1839 200
Other speakers of the same language:
Creek, Guale, Muskhogee
Seminole Sites:
Black Seminole Indians
Black Seminoles
Black Seminoles - Scouts
Men Visit the Sky (Story)
Origin of the Seminole Indians
Seizure of Negroes in Seminole Nation
Seminole Archeology
Seminole Authors
Seminole Dolls
Seminole Hard Rock Hotel and Casino Hollywood
Seminole (Hitchiti-Mikasuki)
Seminole Indian News
Seminole Indian Scouts
Seminole Indian Tribe History
Seminole Indian Village and Cultural Center
Seminole Indians
Seminole Nation of Oklahoma
Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts
Seminole Treaty - 1833
Seminole Treaty - 1865
Seminole Tribe
Seminole Tribe of Florida
Seminole Tribe, Running from History
Seminole Tribe of Oklahoma Flag
Seminole Tribe's Cattle Drive
Seminole War Chiefs
Treaty (Black Seminoles)
Unconquered Seminoles

Last updated 10/25/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press