Ethnie: SAPONI
Language: Tutelo
Family: Southeastern Siouan
Stock: Siouan Proper
Phylum: Siouan
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers None
       The Saponi were a sedentary hunter/farmer tribe. The eastern Siouans fissioned from the greater Siouan culture about 1,000 B. C. and crossed the Appalachians displacing the previous inhabitants. The Saponi had a large settlement on the banks of the Rivanna, in Albermarle County, directly north of the University of Virginia, a one half mile up the river from the bridge of the southern railway. The tribe, along with its close relatives the Tutelo, was essentially destroyed by the same Iroquois that most of the survivors later joined.
Aboriginal Locations: Subdivisions (Villages)
VA  1 (1)
Present Locations
Extinct as a culture
Year History
1650 Probably separated from the Monacan
1670 Visited by Lederer on Otter Creek, soon moved with Tutelo to two Roanoke River islands escaping from Iroquois; smallpox followed
1701 Had moved further south fleeing Iroquois, found by Lawson on Yadkin River; soon removed to Virginia
1702 May have been joined by some Monacan [?]
1711 Had relocated to Berie County, North Carolina by Tuscarora War; soon joined Tutelo in Brunswich County
1722 By Treaty of Albany, Iroquois agreed to stop hostilities against Virginia tribes
1740 Tutelo and most of Saponi moved north to Pennsylvania, one band remained in North Carolina
1744 Northern Saponi and Tutelo join Cayuga Iroquois
1802 Some southern Saponi joined Tuscarora
Year Total VA Pop. Source
1700 250 NAHDB calculation
1701 250   Lawson
1800 0 NAHDB calculation
1900 0 NAHDB calculation 
2000 0 NAHDB calculation 
Other speakers of the same language:
Manahoac, Monacan, Moneton, Nahyssan, Tutelo
Saponi Sites:
Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Indians
Occaneechi Storytelling
Saponi Authors
Saponi Indian History
Saponi Nation History
Saponi Nation of Missouri [?]
Saponi Nation of Missouri [?]
Voice of the Occaneechi Nation
Tutelo Language
Tutelo Language
Tutelo Language Revitalized
Tutelo Linguistic Lineage
Voice of the Occaneechi People

Last updated 10/13/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press