Language: Kalispel-Pend d'Orielle
Family: Southern Interior Salish
Stock: Interior Salishan
Phylum: Salishan
Macro-Culture: Northwest Plateau
Speakers 200   1997
     The Salish  were hunter/gatherer tribes of the eastern Northwestern Plateau.  They were probably driven westward out of the Great Plains by the Blackfeet.  Their aboriginal territory was the western slope of the Rocky Mountains from Gallatin to Helena and east to the Little Belt Ranges.  They ultimately settled around Flathead Lake.
     They were active traders with the Whites and most of the other western and northern plains tribes.  Theirs was the most common trade language of the plains.  They did, however, have severe conflicts with the Blackfeet and took considerable losses as a result.  Thought they relinquished most of their territories with the Hell Gate Treaty of 1855, they did not settle on their present reservation until 1872.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
MT (4)
Oregon Present Locations
MT  Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe, Pablo
        Flathead Reservation, Dixon
Year History
1700 Acquired horses by theft
1760 Smallpox epidemic
1781 Smallpox epidemic
1787 Visited by David Thompson
1795 Mentioned by Pierred Antoin Tabeau as trading with the Mandans
1805 Visited by Lewis and Clark
1808 Hudson Bay Company Jocko Finlay lived two years among tribe
1809 David Thompson established Kullyspell House trading post on Lake Pend d'Orielle
1810 David Thompson established Spokane House
1811 David Thompson explored the length of the Columbia River
1812 Flathead Post (Saleesh House) established
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers began, conflicts followed; Fr. de Smet founded St. Mary's Mission in the Bitterroot Valley among the tribe
1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie
1855 Reservation established, Hell Gate Treaty
1860 Beginning of four years of gold finds in territory
1865 50 killed in Sioux raids
1869 Acquired smallpox from Gros Ventre
1870 Crow-Sioux wars
1871 Bitterroots overrun by White settlers
1872 Established on present reservation
1910 Reservation opened
1916 Won part of $4 million judgment for acreage forfeited in 1855.
Year U.S. Population Source
1700 2,000 NAHDB calculation
1780 600 Mooney estimate (Surely low)
1780 3,000 Teit estimate (Probably high)
1800 2,000 NAHDB calculation
1805 600 Lewis and Clark estimate (probably incomplete)
1866 522 St. Mary's Census
1871 571 St. Mary's Census
1900 600 NAHDB calculation
1905 557 US Indian Office
1909 598 US Indian Office
1910 486 Census
1930 2,036 US Indian Office
1937 3,085 US Indian Office
1973 2,955 BIA
1981 3,300 BIA
1989 6,200 BIA estimate
2000 6,900 NAHDB calculation
2003 1.650 Tribe
Other speakers of the same language:
Char-Koosta News  
Coeur d'Alene, Kalispel, Pend d'Orielle C
Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes
Flathead Indian Allotments in Montana, 1889
Flathead Indian Reservation Timeline
Flathead Indians
Flathead Reservation:  History and Cultural Overview
Flathead Tribe
Flathead Valley, Rich Tradition
Gray Wolf Creek Casino
Kalispel/Flathead Dictionary
Kalispel/Pend D'Orielle Language
Last Worst Place for Indian Gaming
Meeting the Salish
Northwest Plateau Culture and Ethnobotany
Racism on the Flathead Reservation
Salishan Indian Family History
Salishan, Interior Salish
Salishan, Interior Salish, Southern
Salish Creation Myth
Salish Koontenai College
Salish Language
Salish Language Revitalization Institute
Treaty of Hell Gate
Unidentified Flathead Indian

Last updated 02/29/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press