Sac and Fox



Language: Mesquakie
Family: Central Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers 200-300 (Goddard 1991)
      The Sac and Fox were sedentary hunter/farmer tribes.  They were apparently located on the upper part of Green Bay and the lower part of the Fox River at the time of first contact with Europeans.  They participated in the destruction of the Illinois nation and claimed part of their territories.  They lost those territories with their defeat in the Black Hawk War.  They then removed to Iowa and confederated, thus following the fortunes of the Sac/Fox Confederacy ultimately settling in Oklahoma.  Many Foxes fissioned from the confederacy to form the Mesquakie in Iowa.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
Present Locations
IA     Sac and Fox Tribe of Mississippi and Iowa, Tame
KA   Sac and Fox Tribe of Missouri of the Sac and Fox Reservation
OK   Sac and Fox Nation, Stroud
         Sac and Fox Tribe, Shawnee
Year History
1616 Sac part of the Algonquian community located in upper Michigan and/or Wisconsin or confederacy known to Champlain as "Asistagueronon"[?]
1640 Sac first mentioned in the Jesuit Relation as allied or part of Huron, Foxes, Winnebago, Potawatomi, Kickapoo, and Mascouten
1667 Father Allouez described Sauk as large savage tribe
1671 Father Dablon in Jesuit Relation noted Sauk, Menominee, and Potawqtomi were driven from their lands by the Iroquois and were taking refuge in upper Green Bay among the Winnebago
1672 Sac joined Tiontotati, Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Foxes in expedition against the Sioux, but took considerable losses
1721 Sauk still at Green Bay on Fox River but in dispute with Foxex
1733 Sauk repulsed a French detachment protecting Foxes, French soon attacked and defeated fleeing Sauk
1766 Carver fo0und most of the Sauk villages on the Wisconsin River
1769 Sac participated with the Fox, Kickapoo, Ottawa, Chippewa, and Potawatomi in the destruction of the Illinois nation, claimed territory in Illinois on the Rock River
1804 A Sac band wintering near St. Louis signed a treaty ceding all of Wisconsin and Illinois territories, band never allowed to return to tribe (now recognized as Missouri River Sac)
1832 Main body of Sac refused to move from Illinois territories resulting in Black Hawk War in which they were defeated by the US Army, forced to abandon their territory, fled to Iowa territory, confederated with Fox to form Sac/Fox Confederacy formed under Keokuk
1854 Many Foxes fissioned from tribe to form Mesquakie of Iowa
1867 Sauk ceded Kansas lands for lands in Indian Territory
1889 Oklahoma lands granted in severalty
1912 Sac/Fox Jim Thorpe won pentathlon and decathlon in Olympics in Stockholm
1950 Jim Thorpe named greatest athlete of half century
Year Total Pop. IL MO WI Source
1650 3,500 3,500 Mooney estimate
1700 3,500 3,500 NAHDB calculation
1736 750 Swanton
1759 1,000 Mooney estimate
1766 2,000 Swanton
1783 2,250 Swanton
1800 2,500 1,000 500 1,000 NAHDB calculation
1810 2,850 Swanton
1825 4,800 Swanton, joined Sac/Fox Confederacy in 1832
1834 2,500 Swanton
1900 700 150 50 500 NAHDB calculation 
1909 623 US Indian Office
1910 411 Census
1923 766 US Indian Office
1981 2,338 BIA
2000 3,500 1,000 400 2,100 NAHDB calculation
2005 3,700 1,100 400 2,200 First Nations
Sac Sites:
Art History of Missouri
Black Hawk of the Sauk Nation
Black Hawk's Narrative - Introduction
Black Hawk War
Black Hawk War - 1832
Black Hawk War - 1832
Fox Indian Tribal History
Mesquakie Authors
Mesquakie Language
Mesquakie Linguistic Lineage
Mesquakie-Sauk (Sac and Fox) Language
Mesquakie-Sauk (Sac and Fox Language)
Sac and Fox
Sac and Fox
Sac and Fox Authors
Sac and Fox Chiefs
Sac and Fox Culture and History
Sac and Fox History
Sac and Fox Indians - Lewis and Clark Expedition
Sac and Fox Nation
Sac and Fox Nation
Sac and Fox Nation Constitution
Sac and Fox Nation of Iowa Flag
Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri Community Profile
Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri History
Sac and Fox Reservation - Iowa
Sac and Fox Significant People
Sac and Fox Tribe
Sac (Sauk) and Fox (Mesquakie) Nation
Sac (Sauk) and Fox Nation Introduction and Index
Sauk and Fox Indians
Sauk and Mesquakie - Blackhawk State Historical Site
Sauk Indian Language
Sauk Indian Portraits
Sauk Indian Tribe History
Sauk/Sac Indian Tribe History
Sauk Treaty - 1816
Thorpe, Jim
Thorpe, Jim, Baseball Statistics

Last updated 03/03/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press