Dialect: Arkansa
Language: Dhegihan
Family Mississippi Valley Siouan 
Stock: Siouan Proper
Phylum: Siouan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers      34 (1990 Census)
      The Quapaw were a sedentary hunter/farmer nation.  They, along with their close relatives the Kaw, Osage, Omaha, and Ponca, lived in the region of the Ohio and Wabash Rivers.  They were the last of the Dhegihans to remove from that region.
      The Quapaw settled in region around the around the mouth of the Arkansas River sometime after the departure of De Soto and before the arrival of the French.  They were pushed into the Indian Territory early in the nineteenth century.  They moved often in their history primarily as a result of White pressure, suffering huge population losses.
Aboriginal Locations (Villages)
AR  (4)
Present Locations
OK  Quapaw Trine, Miami; Ponca Tribe, White Eagle    
Year History
1500 Omaha group separated from the Kaw and Quapaw in the region of the Wabash and Ohio Rivers
1673 Marquette visited a Quapaw village on the Mississippi River, found them to be hospitable
1682 Robert De La Salle and Henri de Tonti visited a Quapaw town, called "Arkansa"
1686 Visited by Tonti, became allies with the French
1699 Smallpox epidemic
1700 Removed from the Mississippi to the Arkansas
1758 Visited by La Page du Pratz above entrance to the White River
1762 France ceded all lands east of the Mississippi to Spain
1784 Peace treaty with former enemies the Chickasaw
1801 Arkansas returned to French rule
1803 Louisiana Purchase placed Arkansas in United Ststes
1805 Found by Sibley on Arkaknsas River above Arkansas Post
1818 Ceded lands by treaty at St. Louis, moved to the Red River
1823 Land speculators petitioned for the removal of Quapaw from territories
1824 Suffered from flooding, ceded lands by treaty, agreed to move to Caddo territory
1827 many Quapaw starved due to Caddo maltreatment, aided by Arkansas White settlers, soon removed to Arkansas
1833 Aggravated settlers prompted US to convey tribe to Kansas, forced to sign treaty
1834 Moved to Oklahoma lands near Seneca/Cayuga and Shawnee, soon evicted due to survey error
1846 Has separated into three bands, one living with Creeks, another on Canadian River, one in northeast
1859 Returned to Quapaw Reservation in Kansas
1867 Ceded Kansas lands, moved to Oklahoma
1877 Joined by the Ponca, most joined the Ponca and removed to a new reservation west of the Osage; joined by 450 Nez Perce
1885 Epidemic; smallpox [?], most Nez Perce returned home
1895 Land allotted in severalty
Year Total Population AR OK Source
1650 2,500 Mooney estimate
1700 1,400 1,400 NAHDB calculation
1750 1,400 Father Vivier estimate
1800 900 900 NAHDB calculation
1829 500 Porter estimate
1885 174 Swanton
1890 198 Census
1900 200 200 NAHDB calculation 
1910 231 Census
1916 333 US Indian Office
1923 347 US Indian Office
1930 222 Census
1981 1,193 BIA
1989 559 BIA estimate
2000 600 600 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Kaw, Osage
Quapaw Sites:
Eaker Site Archeology
Meador Site
Ogapah/Quapaw Tribe
Parkin Archeological State Park
Quapaw Agency Land
Quapaw:  Arkansas Territory
Quapaw Authors
Quapaw/CSA Treaty
Quapaw Indians
Quapaw Indian Tribe History
Quapaw Language
Quapaw Linguistic Lineage
Quapaw News
Quapaw Removal
Quapaw Treaty
Quapaw Treaty
Quapaw Tribe
Quapaw Tribe;jsessionid=DED269EB4CC82ADD02096CC694394F7D

Last updated 06/05/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press