Pueblo Culture

Pueblo Cultural Traits

1.   Sedentary hunter/farmers
.  Dry farmed corn, beans, and squash and a number of other plants
.  Domesticated turkeys
.  Hunted a wide array of game including buffalo
2.   Practiced the prescribed prophylactic Pueblo Kachina religion
.   Spring and fall dances
.   Strict incest taboos
..  Matrilineal
..  Could marry patrilineal first cousin
.   Puberty rites of passage:
.   Monogamous
.   Priest based
3.   Peaceful
4.   Communal
5.   Excellent artisans
.   Potters
.   Basket weavers
.   Carved kachinas
6.   Lived in apartment style multi-floored Pueblos
7.   Traded extensively

Pueblo Culture languages and tribes:

Phylum / Stock / Family / Language Tribe Current Pueblo(s)
Aztec-Tanoan / Kiowa-Tanoan / Tanoan / Tanoan Tano (Extinct as culture)
Aztec-Tanoan / Kiowa-Tanoan / Tanoan / Tewan Tewa Hano, AZ
Nambe, NM
Pojoaque, NM
San Idelfonso, NM
San Juan, NM
Santa Clara, NM
Tesuque, NM
Aztec-Tanoan / Kiowa-Tanoan / Tanoan / Tiwan Piro Isleta del Sur, TX
Tiwa Isleta, NM
Picuris, NM
Sandia, NM
Taos, NM
Aztec-Tanoan / Kiowa-Tanoan / Tanoan / Towan Jemez Jemez, NM
Pecos (Among Jemez)
Aztec-Tanoan / Uto-Aztecan / Hopi / Hopi Hopi First Mesa, AZ
Awatobi
Kisakovi
Kuchaptuvela
Sichomovi
Walpi
Second Mesa, AZ
Mishongovi
Shipaulovi
Shongopovi
Third Mesa, AZ
Oraibi
Other, AZ
Homolovi
Keresan / Keresan / Keresan / Keresan Keres Acoma, NM
Cochiti, NM
Laguna, NM
San Felipe, NM
Santa Ana, NM
Santa Domingo, NM
Zia, NM
Zuni / Zuni / Zuni / Zuni Zuni Zuni, NM
PUEBLO CULTURE ETHNOBOTANY
Wild Plant/ Domesticated Plant Scientific Name Use
Alligator Juniper Juniperus deppeana Steud. Food Large fruit boiled and eaten as food, berries boiled for food.
American Plum Prunus americana Marsh. Food Fruit eaten for food.
Dye Root bark, alder root bark and mountain mahogany root bark used to make a red dye for buckskin.
Apache Plume Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl. ex Torr. Tools Branches bound together & used as a broom for outdoor sweeping & to separate chaff from the wheat.
Weapons Straight sticks used for arrow shafts.
Banana Yucca Yucca baccata Torr. Food Fruit baked, seasoned and used for food, sun dried fruit used for winter storage, fruit eaten fresh or boiled, cooled and the skin peeled off with a knife, flesh cooked, made into pats, sun dried and eaten as a conserve, fruit made into conserves and used as a sweetener before the introduction of coffee and sugar.fruit often eaten by deer which left few for the Isletans.
Basketry Fibers used to make baskets, split leaves used to make winnowing baskets, baskets for serving food & for transporting materials, interlaced leaves used to make baskets, used to make sifting baskets.
Tools Fibers used to make small brushes for pottery decoration.
Cordage Fibers used to make cords and ropes, leaves boiled, chewed and made into a double-stranded cord.
Decorations Fibers used to make plaques.
Soap Roots pounded, made into suds in cold water and used for washing, roots bruised, placed in water and used to wash woolens, cotton fabrics, feathers and hair.
Ceremony (Tewa)  Infusion of root used as a wash in adoption and name-giving ceremonies. (Zuni)  Leaf fibers made into cords used to tie prayer plume offerings together & for other ceremonial uses, narrow leaf bands worn around the head by personators of anthropic gods, plant used ceremonially for a great variety of purposes.
Cloth Leaves boiled, chewed and fiber woven into skirts and kilts, leaf fibers used in weaving fabrics.
Misc. Leaves split and plaited into mats to cover various vessels, dried leaves split, plaited and made into water-carrying head pads.
Beans (Note: Most dry beans grown in North America are of the same species) Phaseolus vulgaris L. Food Cultivated beans used for food, beans boiled & fried or crushed, boiled beans mixed with mush, baked in corn husks & used for food, boiled and fried beans used for food, beans formerly ground into flour and prepared as mush.
Bearded Flatsedge Cyperus squarrosus L. Food Tubers eaten.
Birchleaf Mountain Mahogany Cercocarpus montanus var. glaber (S. Wats.) F.L. Martin Tools Wood used to make implements.
Black Chokecherry Prunus virginiana var. melanocarpa (A. Nels.) Sarg. Food Fruits eaten fresh, fruits dried for winter use.
Weapons Wood, backed with sinew, made into bows.
Blue Grama Bouteloua gracilis (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths Food Used as an important forage grass.
Basketry Used as the fill of coiled basketry.
Blue Lettuce Lactuca tatarica var. pulchella (Pursh) Breitung Food Gummy substance from the root used for chewing gum.
Blunt Tastymustard Descurainia obtusa (Greene) O.E. Schulz Food Young plants boiled as greens.
Bluntseed Sweetroot Osmorhiza depauperata Phil. Drink Roots and stems boiled to make a beverage.
Bottle Gourd (Note:  Many gourds are of the same species) Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. Ceremony Used as prayer sticks, covered with a cord net to be used as water containers in ceremonies and buried with the dead, used as trumpets or megaphones to represent the bellowing of the plumed serpent in ceremonies.
Containers Used as containers for sacred honey, cups, seed bottles and medicine holders.
Cooking Used as dippers, canteens and spoons.
Decorations Used to make noses, horns and flowers for masks.
Hunting Used in hunting to imitate the sound of a deer.
Music Used as rattles.
Tools Used as pottery scrapers.
Boxelder Acer negundo L. Ceremony (Keres)  Twigs made into prayer sticks.
Broadleaf Cattail Typha latifolia L. Food Roots and tender shoots salted and eaten as food, shoots ground, mixed with corn meal and used as food.
Ceremony  (Keres)  Ripened cattails shaken in the rain dance to produce clouds, fuzz used ritually like prayer meal or pollen.
Building Cattails used to support the mud of thatched roofs.
Misc. Used to make sleeping mats.
Broom Snakeweed Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britt. & Rusby Ceremony Used as prayer stick decorations.
Soap Infusion of leaves used as pleasant and refreshing bath.
Bulbil Onion Allium geyeri var. tenerum M.E. Jones Food Bulbs used largely for seasoning.
Bulbous Springparsley Cymopterus bulbosus A. Nels. Food Eaten like celery.
Canyon Grape Vitis arizonica Engelm. Food Fruit considered an important part of the diet.
Cactus Apple Opuntia engelmannii Salm-Dyck Food Ripe tunas eaten fresh, tunas split, dried, ground and the meal mixed with corn meal to make a mush for winter use, seeds ground with white corn and meal eaten as mush.
Cooking Tunas used as a red dye for corn mush.
Paint Tunas used for red paint.
Tools Thorns used for needles.
Canada Cockleburr Xanthium strumarium var. canadense (P. Mill.) Torr. & Gray Food Seeds ground, mixed with corn meal, made into pats and steamed, seeds ground with corn meal, made into cakes or balls, steamed and used for food.
Ceremony (Zuni)  Chewed seeds rubbed on body prior to cactus ceremony to protect from spines.
Carruth's Sagewort Artemisia carruthii Wood ex Carruth. Food Ground seeds mixed with water, made into balls, steamed and used for food, Seeds considered among the most important food plants when the Zuni reached this world.
Cayenne Pepper Capsicum annuum L. Food Dried peppers crushed and used as flavoring for food, fruits strung and dried for winter use, cultivated and eaten almost daily or sometimes at more than one meal per day.
Cinchweed Fetidmarigold Pectis papposa Harvey & Gray Ceremony (Zuni)  Chewed blossoms used as perfume before a dance in ceremonies of the secret fraternities.
Clark Valley Larkspur Delphinium geraniifolium Rydb. Ceremony Plant used ceremonially (Hopi)
Cliff Fendlerbush Fendlera rupicola Gray Ceremony Used in religious ceremonies.
Club Cholla Opuntia clavata Engelm. Food Stems and fruits roasted and eaten in times of food shortage, joints roasted and eaten during famines.
Colorado Four O'Clock Mirabilis multiflora (Torr.) Gray Ceremony Root chewed by medicine man to induce visions while making a diagnosis.
Hunting Heavy root used to anchor the bird trap string.
Smoking Dried leaves used as tobacco.
Colorado Rubberweed Hymenoxys richardsonii var. floribunda (Gray) Parker Food Roots used as chewing gum.
Common Dunebroom Parryella filifolia Torr. & Gray ex Gray Basketry Pleasantly fragrant plant used for weaving baskets.
Ceremony Plant used to weave kachina masks.
Common Hackberry Celtis occidentalis L. Food Berries used extensively for food.
Common Mullein Verbascum thapsus L. Ceremony Leaves used as a ceremonial tobacco.
Common Plaqntain Plantago major L. Food Tender shoots used for food.
Common Reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Weapons Plant used to make arrows.
Ceremony Associated ceremonially with the bow and arrow.
Toys/Games (Tewa)  Plant used to make game sticks for the canute game.
Misc. Used for roofing, tubular pipes, pipe stems and weaving rods.
Common Sunflower Helianthus annuus L. Ceremony Petals dried, ground, mixed with yellow corn meal and used as a face powder in women's basket dance, pith used to light the ceremonial cigarettes. (Zuni)  Blossoms used ceremonially for anthropic worship.
Cooper's Rubberweed Hymenoxys cooperi (Gray) Cockerell Drink Used to make tea.
Dye Used for a dye.
Copper Globemallow Sphaeralcea angustifolia (Cav.) G. Don Ceremony Root sap rubbed on the skin and used as glue for feathers and cotton during dances.
Paint Root skin pounded into powder, water added and used as face paint for dances.
Corn (Note:  All corn is of the same species and descended from a grass called teosinte. Zea Mays Food (Hopi) Seeds ground into meal and used to make wafer bread, pit baked, husked, strung and sun dried, grains soaked in water with juniper ash, boiled and washed to make hominy, made into hominy and other dishes, plant constituted the main food supply, ground into meal, ears pit-baked, husked, strung, sun dried and used as a sweetener in the winter, pit baked and eaten immediately.  (Isleta) Corn meal used to make various breads, parched corn eaten as a confection, corn meal used to make a mush, parched corn eaten as a staple, evaporated liquid from crushed, soaked stalks used to make sugar, corn husks used to wrap tamales, corn meal used to make mush, dried and stored for winter use.  (Pueblo) Cornmeal used ceremonially.  (Keres)  Corn meal used as one of the main foods, roasted corn ears eaten warm for food, roasted corn ears dried and stored for winter use.  (Zia)  Corn and wheat, the most important foods, used for food. (Tewa)  Corn ground on a metate, formed into cakes, rolled and baked, husks, stalks and leaves used for stock winter forage, used as a staple food.  (Zuni)  Toasted or untoasted corn ground into a flour and used to make bread, corn used to make gruel, corn used to make popcorn, toasted or untoasted corn ground into a flour and used to make bread eaten as a staple on journeys, corn ears carried or secretly worn in dances by personators of anthropic gods, ribboned corn husks used as hair decorations in ceremonies, corn meal wrapped in husks given to theurgists visiting the sick, white corn meal made into a mush and used ceremonially during the death of a rain priest, balls of husks covered with woven cotton used ceremonially to insure bountiful crops, ribboned corn husks used as hair decorations in ceremonies.
Drink (Isleta)  Ground corn used to make a slightly intoxicating beverage, (Tewa)  Corn ground and sifted into boiling water to make a gruel formerly drunk in the morning, Corn meal mixed with cold water and drunk as a nourishing drink. (Zuni)  Popped corn ground as fine as possible, mixed with cold water, strained and used as a beverage.
Ceremony (Hopi)  Used in almost all ceremonies either as corn meal, as an actual ear of corn or as a painting, ceremonially associated with the northeast direction, whole ears boiled and given as presents during the winter ceremonies, ceremonially associated with the nadir.  (Isleta)  Corn husks used as cigarette papers for the ceremonial cigarettes, corn silks used in the "Corn Dances," pollen used in the "Corn Dances," (Keres)  Corn pollen and corn meal used for many ceremonial purposes, corn meal sprinkled by everyone before eating and prayer repeated.  (Tewa)  Husks twisted and used to make the framework and mounts for feathers in ceremonial ornaments.
Funeral (Isleta)  Corn meal smeared on the body in the burial ceremony.
Cash Crop (Tewa)  Formerly bartered with the Comanche for prepared buffalo hides.
Smoking (Tewa)  Husks made into cigarettes.
Tools (Tewa)  Cobs used to make handles and holders.
Coyote Tobacco Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex S. Wats. Smoking Dried leaves and other plant parts smoked in pipes and cigarettes.
(Zuni) Leaves smoked ceremonially.
Creeping Barberry Mahonia repens (Lindl.) G. Don Ceremony Yellow root and leaves used for ceremonial purposes in the Home Dance (Hopi).
Crested Pricklypoppy Argemone polyanthemos (Fedde) G.B. Ownbey Ceremony Plant used to whip children during initiation.
Crispleaf Buckwheat Eriogonum corymbosum Benth. Food Boiled stalks pressed into cakes, dried and eaten with salt.
Crookneck Squash Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne ex Lam.) Duchesne ex Poir. Food Meat boiled or baked, meat cut spirally, wound into long bundles, tied in pairs and dried for winter use, flowers used to make special foods, seeds roasted and eaten.
Cooking Seeds used to oil the "piki" stones.
Container Dried shell used by children to carry parched corn.
Music Shell dried and used as a sounding board for musical rasps.
Cutleaf Nightshade Solanum triflorum Nutt. Food Ripe fruit boiled, ground, mixed with ground chile & salt & eaten as a condiment with mush or bread, berries eaten in times of famine.
Datura or Jimson Weed or Sacred Thornapple Datura wrightii Regel Narcotic Hallucinogen (Deadly poisonous)  Root chewed to induce visions by medicine man while making a diagnosis, plant well known for the narcotic properties.
Ceremony Powdered root used by rain priests in a number of ways to ensure fruitful rains.
Deergrass Muhlenbergia rigens (Benth.) A.S. Hitchc. Ceremony (Zuni)  Grass attached to sticks of plume offerings to anthropic gods.
Desert Princesplume Stanleya pinnata (Pursh) Britt. Food Boiled plant used for greens in the spring.
Desert Tobacco Nicotiana obtusifolia var. obtusifolia Smoking Wild tobacco smoked.
Douglas Fir Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco Ceremony Plant sometimes used in ceremonies.
Dwarf Mentzella Mentzelia pumila Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray Smoking Plant used as a substitute for tobacco.
Erect Spiderling Boerhavia erecta L. Misc. Sticky leaves and stem hung in house to catch flies.
Falsepennyroyal Hedeoma nana (Torr.) Briq. Soap Infusion of plant used as a hair wash and body bath.
Food Leaves chewed for the mint flavor.
Fendler's Horsenettle Solanum fendleri Gray ex Torr. Food Potatoes eaten raw or cooked with clay to counteract the astringency.
Fendler's Springparsley Cymopterus acaulis var. fendleri (Gray) Goodrich Food Plant eaten much as celery.
Field Pumpkin Cucurbita pepo L. Domestic Food Fresh squash cut into spiral strips, folded into hanks and hung up to dry for winter use, blossoms cooked in grease and used as a delicacy in combination with other foods, fresh squash, either whole or in pieces, roasted in ashes and used for food.
Ceremony Gourds worn in phallic dances symbolizing fructification or made into ceremonial rattles.
Containers Gourds made into receptacles for storing precious articles.
Cooking Gourds made into cups, ladles and dippers and put to various uses.
Fineleaf Hymenopappus Hymenopappus filifolius Hook. Food Leaves boiled, rubbed with cornmeal and baked into bread, root used as chewing gum.
Ceremony Compound containing plant used as a ceremonial emetic.
Drink Used to make tea and coffee.
Dye Used for dye.
Fendler's Groundcherry Physalis hederifolia var. fendleri (Gray) Cronq. Food Fruit boiled in small quantities of water, crushed and used as a condiment.
Fendler's Horsenettle Solanum fendleri Gray ex Torr. Food Raw tubers used for food.
Fetid Goosefoot Chenopodium graveolens Willd. Food Seeds ground, mixed with corn meal and made into small dumplings wrapped in corn husks.
Fourwing Saltbush Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. Cooking Ashes used as alkali to maintain blue coloring of piki bread, ashes used as baking soda
Ceremony (Hopi) Plant used to make pahos (prayer sticks), plant used for kiva fires.  (Zuni) Twigs attached to prayer plumes and sacrificed to the cottontail rabbit to ensure good hunting.
Fremont's Goosefoot Chenopodium fremontii S. Wats. Food Ground seeds used to make mush, leaves cooked alone as greens or boiled and eaten with a number of other foods, leaves used as flavoring with meat or other vegetables, leaves packed around yucca fruit when baked in earth oven.
Fremont's Mahonia Mahonia fremontii (Torr.) Fedde Tools Wood used to make various tools.
Ceremony Crushed berries used as purple coloring for the skin and for objects employed in ceremonies.
Fringed Sagewort Artemisia frigida Willd. Food Used with sweet corn when roasting.
Ceremony Sprig attached to the prayer emblem and regarded as efficacious in petitions for water, plant used to make pahos (prayer sticks).
Galleta Pleuraphis jamesii Torr. Basketry Grass used by the women to make coil trays, used as the fill of coiled basketry.
Tools Culms used as a floor and hair brush.
Ceremony Used as the artificial arm worn by the manipulator of the serpent effigy.
Decoration Stems used to form the base of the coils for manufactured plaques.
Gambel's Oak Quercus gambelii Nutt. Food Acorns ground into meal, acorns boiled and eaten.
Sewing Wood used to make embroidery stretchers.
Tools Woods used to make digging sticks, wood used to make rabbit sticks and other utensils.
Weapons Woods used to make bows and war clubs.
Geyer's Onion Allium geyeri S. Wats. Food Used for flavoring before the introduction of the cultivated onion, eaten raw with cornmeal dumplings or fresh piki bread.
Geyer's Smooth Aster Symphyotrichum laeve var. geyeri (Gray) Nesom Food Flowers mixed with parched corn and eaten.
Dye Flowers mixed with white clay and used to dye wool or eggs.
Giant Dropseed Sporobolus giganteus Nash Food Seeds threshed, ground with corn into fine meal and used to make a mush, seeds used as flavoring for corn meal.
Ceremony (Hopi)  Stems used to make pahos (prayer sticks), bundles of plant used to cover kiva entrance during Bean Ceremonial, pollen used in the hunting ceremony.
Giant Goldenrod Solidago gigantea Ait. Basketry Stems made into rough baskets.
Giant Sandreed Calamovilfa gigantea (Nutt.) Scribn. & Merr. Ceremony Plant used in the Flute ceremony, plumes used to decorate masks, plumes used to decorate mask of kachina, plant used to make a carrying case for a part of the wedding garments, plant used to make prayer sticks.
Weapons Plant used to make bows and arrows.
Gilia Beardtongue Penstemon ambiguus Torr. Ceremony Plant, associated with east direction, used in the Po-wa-mu ceremony.
Golden Mariposa Lily Calochortus aureus S. Wats. Food Bulbs and flowers eaten, roots eaten raw.
Ceremony Ceremonially used as the Yellow Flower associated with the northwest direction.
Golden Tickseed Coreopsis tinctoria var. tinctoria Food Plant formerly used to make a hot beverage until the introduction of coffee by traders.
Dye Blossoms used with other flowers as a mahogany red dye for yarn.
Graceful Buttercup Ranunculus inamoenus Greene Food Roots used for food.
Green Rabbitbush Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (Hook.) Nutt. Food Plant used as a herb.
Dye Blossoms used as a yellow dye for wools and cotton yarn.
Ceremony Plant used for ceremonies, used as prayer stick decorations.
Cooking Plant used for roasting corn.
Greene's Rabbitbush Chrysothamnus greenei (Gray) Greene Ceremony Used as prayer stick decorations.
Green Indian Paintbrush Castilleja miniata ssp. miniata Ceremony (Acoma)  Plant held by women for decoration during the harvest dance.
Greenstripe Amaranthus acanthochiton Sauer Food Cooked with meat and eaten as greens.
Famine Food Used numerous times to ward off famines.
Hollyleaf Barberry Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt. Prophylactic (Acoma & Laguna) Plant chewed for sickness that occurred during hunting when approached by a dying deer.
Heartleaf Four O'Clock Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacM. Smoking Leaves used as tobacco.
Honey Mesquite Prosopis glandulosa Torr. Food Beans eaten raw or cooked as string beans, beans ground into a flour, made into a mush and used for food, beans toasted and eaten as a confection by sucking out the juice, beans formerly ground into flour and prepared as mush.
Weapons Limbs used to make shafts for hunting arrows.
Hooker's Buckwheat Eriogonum hookeri S. Wats. Food Boiled with mush for flavor.
Hopi Tea Greenthread Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze Beverage Infusion of plant used as a beverage.
Howard's Rabbitbush Ericameria parryi var. howardii (Parry ex Gray) Nesom & Baird Ceremony Plant used in initiatory ceremonials, dried plant used as one of the four prescribed kiva fuels, flowers and chalky stones used as a bright yellow pigment for personal decoration in ceremonies.
Dye Yellow flowers used to make a yellow dye, bark used to obtain a green dye.
Indianhemp Apocynum cannabinum L. Food Gum mixed with clean clay and used for chewing gum.
Indian Paintbrush Castilleja affinis Hook. & Arn. Decoration Used by maidens to deck their hair on holiday occasions.
Indian Ricegrass Achnatherum hymenoides (Roemer & J.A. Schultes) Barkworth Food Used especially in earlier times as an important source of food.
Indian Rushpea Hoffmannseggia glauca (Ortega) Eifert Food Potatoes roasted and eaten much more commonly in the past than currently.
James' Buckwheat Eriogonum jamesii Benth. Ceremony Ground blossom powder given to ceremonial dancers impersonating anthropic gods to bring rain.
James' Monkeyflower Mimulus glabratus var. jamesii (Torr. & Gray ex Benth.) Gray Food Salted, tender, young leaves used for salad, tender shoots slit and eaten as a salad.
Jerusalem Artichoke Helianthus tuberosus L. Food Tubers eaten in the spring.
Juniper Mistletoe Phoradendron juniperinum Engelm. ex Gray Food Berries eaten when other foods became scarce.
Kingcup Cactus Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. triglochidiatus Food Tunas used for food, fruits, with spines removed by burning, eaten fresh, pulp macerated and cooked with sugar to make cakes, pulp baked with sugar and used to make candy, pulp sliced and baked like squash.
Drink Water extracted from pulp in emergencies.
Candle Dried pulp used as candles.
Lambsquarters or Quinoa History Chenopodium album L. Food Leaves boiled and eaten with fat, leaves cooked with meat, ground seeds used to make mush.
Largeflower Skeletonplant Lygodesmia grandiflora (Nutt.) Torr. & Gray Food Boiled with a certain kind of mush for flavor, leaves boiled with meats and eaten.
Lemon Beebalm Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag. Food Plant boiled and eaten only with hares.
Little Hogweed Portulaca oleracea L. Food Plants cooked with meat and eaten like spinach, plants oven dried, stored and used as greens during the winter.
Littleleaf Mockorange Philadelphus microphyllus Gray Food Fruits formerly used for food.
Littleleaf Mountain Mahogany Cercocarpus intricatus S. Wats. Ceremony Plant used during mid-winter ceremonial to make prayer sticks.
Longflower Rabbitbush Chrysothamnus depressus Nutt. Ceremony Used as prayer stick decorations.
Longleaf Groundcherry Physalis longifolia Nutt. Food Berries used for food, berries boiled, ground in a mortar with raw onions, chile and coriander seeds and used for food.
Longstalk Greenthread Thelesperma longipes Gray Food Plants stored well for future use.
Drink Young plant leaves boiled to make a beverage resembling commercial tea.
Manystem Peavine Lathyrus polymorphus ssp. polymorphus var. polymorphus Food Whole pods used for food.
Mat Amaranth Amaranthus blitoides S. Wats. Food Ground seeds used to make mush, cooked and eaten as greens, young plants boiled and dried for winter use, seeds ground into meal, seeds originally eaten raw, but later ground with black corn meal, made into balls and eaten.
Mealy Goosefoot Chenopodium incanum (S. Wats.) Heller Food Young, tender leaves cooked and eaten as greens.
Mid Bladderpod Lesquerella intermedia (S. Wats.) Heller Ceremony Infusion of root taken as a ceremonial emetic.
Mintleaf Beebalm Monarda fistulosa ssp. fistulosa var. menthifolia (Graham) Fern. Food Leaves used for seasoning soups and stews.
Missouri Gourd Cucurbita foetidissima Kunth Ceremony Ripe gourds used as rattles in dances.
Toys Ripe gourds used as children's rattles.
Food Fruit formerly used for food.
Mound Saltbush Atriplex obovata Moq. Food Plant used as flavoring with meat or other vegetables, young, tender leaves cooked and eaten as greens.
Mountain Brome Bromus marginatus Nees ex Steud. Tools Tied bunches of plants used as hair brushes and light brooms.
Narrowleaf Cottonwood Populus angustifolia James Food Buds used as chewing gum, buds used for food.
Narrowleaf Goosefoot Chenopodium leptophyllum (Moq.) Nutt. ex S. Wats. Food Ground seeds used to make mush, Ground seeds mixed with corn meal and salt, made into a stiff batter, formed into balls and steamed, young plants boiled alone or with meat and used for food, young plants cooked as greens, seeds considered among the most important food plants when the Zuni reached this world.
Narrowleaf Pectis Pectis angustifolia Torr. Food Plant used as a seasoning for meat, to kill the tainted taste.
Netleaf Hackberry Celtis laevigata var. reticulata (Torr.) L. Benson Food Berries extensively used as food.
Nevada Jointfir Ephedra nevadensis S. Wats. Drink Plant without the root occasionally used to make a hot, tea like beverage.
New Mexican Groundcherry Physalis subulata var. neomexicana (Rydb.) Waterfall ex Kartesz & Gandhi Food Berries used for food.
New Mexico Giant Hyssop Agastache pallidiflora ssp. neomexicana var. neomexicana (Briq.) R.W. Sanders Food Leaves used for flavoring, leaves mixed with meat for seasoning.
New Mexico Locust Robinia neomexicana Gray Weapons Branches used in making arrow shafts.
Nodding Onion Allium cernuum Roth Food Used for flavoring before the introduction of the cultivated onion, eaten raw with cornmeal dumplings or fresh piki bread, dipped in water with broken wafer bread and eaten raw, bulbs eaten fresh, uncooked or boiled, bulbs stored for future use.
Nuttall's Povertyweed Monolepis nuttalliana (J.A. Schultes) Greene Food Ground seeds used to make mush.
Oneseed Juniper Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg. Food Berries eaten with piki or cooked with stew, fruits mixed with chopped meat, put into a clean deer stomach and roasted, fruits used to season meats, fruits eaten when other foods became scarce.
Building Used for construction, bark used to chink the walls and roofs of log houses built after the Navajo fashion.
Ceremony Branches used in the kachina dances, charcoal of plant, chewed melon seeds and water used to make a ceremonial body paint, branches used in a few ceremonies and dances.
Funerals (Hopi)  Plant used to do away with evil spirits after a death, boiled branch used as wash by men returning from burying a corpse. (Acoma & Laguna) Infusion of plant taken by all household members for four days after a death, infusion of cedar twigs taken with wafer bread by mothers of infants who died during birth, cedar wood fire smoke used to fumigate property of the deceased.
Cooking Twigs used to separate corn dumplings while boiling.
Decorations Seeds strung for beads.
Tools Used as a rake for clearing brush from the fields.
Toys Berries used in rattles.
Dye Green twigs rubbed on moccasins as a green dye.
Basketry Larger twigs used for basket frames.
Weapons Larger trees used to make bows backed with sinew.
Cloth Bark rubbed fine and used to make baby clothes.
Misc. Bark formerly shredded, bound into bundles and used as torches to give light in houses.
Osageorange Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid. Weapons Wood used to make bows.
Painted Milkvetch Astragalus ceramicus Sheldon Food Sweet roots dug up and eaten by children.
Pale Serviceberry Amelanchier pallida Greene Weapons Used to make bows and arrows.
Pale Wolfberry or Pale Desert-thorn Lycium pallidum Miers Ceremony (Hopi) Plant used at the annual "Niman-katcina" ceremony .  (Zuni)  Ground leaves, twigs and flowers given to warriors for protection during war.
Food (Hopi) Berries eaten fresh from the shrub, seeds eaten, berries cooked to make a jam-like food and served with fresh piki bread.  (Acoma & Laguna) Cooked berries made into a syrup. (Isleta) Fresh, summer berries eaten for food.  (Zuni) Berries eaten raw when perfectly ripe or boiled and sometimes sweetened.
Pinkflower Hedgehog Cactus Echinocereus fendleri (Engelm.) F. Seitz Food Fruits dried and used as a source of sweetening.
Plains Flax Linum puberulum (Engelm.) Heller Paint Flowers made into yellow paint.
Plains Pricklypear Opuntia polyacantha Haw. Food Joints singed in hot coals, boiled with dried sweetcorn and used as a winter food.
Ponderosa Pine Pinus ponderosa P.& C. Lawson Building Wood used to furnish the beams of "vega poles" of the houses.
Powell's Amaranth Amaranthus powellii S. Wats. Food Seeds used for food, leaves used as greens.
Powell's Saltweed Atriplex powellii S. Wats. Food Young plants used for greens, seeds mixed with ground corn to make a mush, seeds eaten raw before the presence of corn & afterwards, ground with corn meal & made into a mush.
Prairie Junegrass Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) J.A. Schultes Food Seeds made into a meal and used to make bread, seeds made into a meal and used to make mush, considered a very important source of food before the introduction of wheat.
Building Straw mixed with adobe to give strength and adhesion.
Prairie Sunflower Helianthus petiolaris Nutt. Ceremony Whole plant used in the decoration of flute priests in the Flute ceremony (Hopi),  dried petals ground and mixed with corn meal to make yellow face powder for women's basket dance.
Pricklyleaf Dogweed Thymophylla acerosa (DC.) Strother Smoking Leaves mixed with tobacco for the flavor.
Pungent Oak Quercus pungens Liebm. Tools Wood used for tool handles, twigs used to tie warp of rugs to beam while weaving.
Purplenerve Springparsley Cymopterus multinervatus (Coult. & Rose) Tidestrom Food Roots eaten in spring.
Purple Prairieclover Dalea lasiathera Gray Food Flowers crushed by hand and sprinkled into meat stew as a flavoring after cooking, root chewed, especially by children, and greatly enjoyed.
Red Amaranth History Amaranthus cruentus L. Food Plant used as a red coloring for paper bread distributed at katcina exhibitions, flowers used to color bread red for certain dances, seeds used for food, leaves used as greens.
Redroot Amaranth Amaranthus retroflexus L. Food Young plants boiled and eaten as greens, seeds collected and ground with meal for food, young plants boiled and dried for winter use.
Rice Button Aster Symphyotrichum dumosum var. dumosum Food Small fruits eaten.
Rio Grande Cottonwood Populus deltoides ssp. wislizeni (S. Wats.) Eckenwalder Food Cotton from the pistillate catkins used as chewing gum, catkins eaten raw.
Ceremony Twigs mixed with spruce branches the day after the mask dance.
Building Smaller limbs and leaves used for thatching houses.
Rockspirea Holodiscus dumosus (Nutt. ex Hook.) Heller Drink Leaves steeped to make a beverage.
Rocky Mountain Beeplant Cleome serrulata Pursh Food Plants boiled and eaten like spinach, seeds cooked well, dried and made into mush before use, seeds made into a meal and used to make bread.
Dye Roots formerly used to make a dye.
Rocky Mountain Juniper Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. Food Fruits eaten fresh or heated.
Rocky Mountain Indian Parsley Aletes anisatus (Gray) Theobald & Tseng Food Raw leaves eaten as a relish, cooked leaves eaten as greens.
Rocky Mountain Maple Acer glabrum Torr. Weapons Straight, young tree trunks used to make bows.
Rubber Rabbitbush Ericameria nauseosa ssp. nauseosa var. nauseosa Dye Flowers used as yellow dye bark used to make green dye.
Building Brush used to make wind breaks.
Basketry (Zuni)  Stems used to make baskets.
Pottery Whole plant except for the root used in pottery decorations.
Tools Plant used for rough brooms.
Ceremony (Hopi) Plant used to weave the wedding bel, plant used on the Po-wa-mu altar and used in Caquol ceremony.  (Zuni) Plant paste used with black mineral paint to color sticks of plume offerings to anthropic gods.
Weapons Wood used to make poisonous war arrows which broke upon impact and could not be shot back.
Rush Skeletonplant Lygodesmia juncea (Pursh) D. Don ex Hook. Ceremony Plant used for decorations in ceremonial dances.
Rusty Lupine Lupinus pusillus Pursh Ceremony Juice used as holy water in the Po-wa-mu ceremony (Hopi).
Sacauista Nolina microcarpa S. Wats. Basketry Plant used to make baskets.
Food Seeds made into a meal and used to make bread, seeds made into a meal and used to make mush, fruit eaten fresh, fruit eaten preserved.
Cordage Leaf fibers used to make cords, ropes and whips.
Ceremony Seeds used in dried gourd shells to make ceremonial rattles.
Misc. Plant used to make mats, leaf fibers used to make brushes.
Sack Saltbush Atriplex saccaria S. Wats. Food Young, tender leaves cooked and eaten as greens.
Sandbar Willow Salix exigua Nutt. Basketry Young branches used to make baskets, slender switches used to make baskets.
Ceremony Branches made into prayer sticks.
Cooking Eight or twelve willows trimmed at the ends, tied together & used for stirring fire toasted foods.
Building Stems formerly used for filling between the house rafters.
Misc. Young branches used to make mats.
Sandhill Amaranth Amaranthus arenicola I.M. Johnston Food Leaves boiled and eaten with meat.
Sandhill Muhly Muhlenbergia pungens Thurb. Tools Culms stripped of leaves and bound together to form a broom and hair brush.
Sand Dropseed Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray Food Plant used to make bread, plant used to make pudding, grain occasionally used for food during famines.
Sanddune Wallflower Erysimum capitatum var. capitatum Paint Ground flowers used as yellow paint.
Sandyseed Clammyweed Polanisia dodecandra ssp. trachysperma (Torr. & Gray) Iltis Ceremony Dried, rubbed leaves rolled in corn husks to make ceremonial cigarettes, switches, roots and blossoms used ceremonially.
Scarlet Gilia Ipomopsis aggregata ssp. aggregata Drink Boiled for a drink.
Dye Plant used for dye.
Decoration Plant used for decoration.
Screwbean Mesquite Prosopis pubescens Benth. Food Pods chewed for the starch content and agreeable taste.
Sego Lily Calochortus nuttallii Torr. & Gray Food Seeds and flowers ground to make yellow pollen.
Ceremony Yellow flower used ceremonially.
Shadescale Saltbush Atriplex confertifolia (Torr. & Frém.) S. Wats. Food Young, tender leaves cooked and eaten as greens, plant used as flavoring with meat or other vegetables, scented leaves boiled and water mixed with cornmeal to make a pudding.
Showy Milkweed Asclepias speciosa Torr. Food Milky latex allowed to harden and used as chewing gum.
Silky Sophora Sophora nuttalliana B.L. Turner Food Sweet roots chewed as a delicacy.
Silverscale Saltbush Atriplex argentea Nutt. Food Young, tender leaves cooked and eaten as greens, leaves boiled and eaten with fat and/or meat, fruits eaten for food, seeds and expanded calyx eaten for food and the salty taste.
Singleleaf Ash Fraxinus anomala Torr. ex S. Wats. Ceremony Used for prayer sticks.
Singleleaf Pinyon Pinus monophylla Torr. & Frém. Food Nuts eaten for food.
Sorcery (Hopi)  Gum applied to forehead as a protection from sorcery.
Dye Gum used to prepare certain dyes.
Art Gum used in making turquoise mosaics.
Misc. Gum used in waterproofing and repairing pottery vessels.
Skunkbush Sumac Rhus trilobata Nutt Food Fruits eaten fresh as appetizers, fruits mixed with various foods as seasoning, berries used as a lemon flavored seasoning for food, fruits eaten whole or ground.
Drink Berries used to make a beverage.
Basketry Branches woven into rough baskets.  (Zuni) Stems, with the bark removed, used in making fine "Apache" and other baskets.
Weapons Larger bushes sometimes used for bows.
Paint Crushed berry juice used as a vehicle for paint.
Slim Amaranth Amaranthus hybridus L. Food Young plants boiled and eaten as greens, seeds collected and ground with meal for food, young plants boiled and dried for winter use.
Small Soapweed Yucca glauca Nutt. Food Fruit baked, seasoned and used for food, sun dried fruit stored for winter use, seed pods boiled and used for food.
Basketry Fibers used to make baskets.
Ceremony Used to make bandoleers and neckties for clowns and dancers, used to make whips to beat novices during some initiation ceremonies.
Tools Leaves made into brushes & used for decorating pottery, ceremonial masks, alters and other objects.
Cordage Fibers used to make cords and ropes, leaves soaked in water to soften them and made into rope by knotting them together.
Decorations Fibers used to make plaques.
Soap Roots pounded until soft, soaked in water and used as a soap for bathing, washing hair & blankets.
Misc. Dried leaves split, plaited and made into water-carrying head pads, leaves used for making mats, cincture pads and other articles.
Smooth Horsetail Equisetum laevigatum A. Braun Ceremony Dried, ground with corn meal and used to make a ceremonial bread.
Smooth Sumac Rhus glabra L. Smoking Leaves smoked as tobacco.
Snowball Sand Verbena Abronia fragrans Nutt. ex Hook. Food Roots ground, mixed with corn meal and eaten.
Ceremony Flowers made into ceremonial necklaces.
Specklepod Milkvetch Astragalus lentiginosus var. diphysus (Gray) M.E. Jones Food Fleshy roots eaten fresh, pods eaten fresh, boiled and salted, pods dried for winter use.
Spike Dropseed Sporobolus contractus A.S. Hitchc. Building Grass bunches fastened together and used to construct shelters in or near the distant fields.
Misc. Grass bunches fastened together to make mats for covering hatchways and other openings in the house.
Stretchberry Forestiera pubescens var. pubescens Ceremony Used to make pahos (prayer sticks).
Tools Wood used for digging sticks.
Sweetroot Springparsley Cymopterus newberryi (S. Wats.) M.E. Jones Food Sweet roots peeled and eaten by children.
Tall Mountain Larkspur Delphinium scaposum Greene Ceremony Plant taken as an emetic in Po-wa-mu ceremony, petals and seeds ground into a very fine blue meal prescribed for the Flute altar. (Hopi)
Tasselflower Bricklebush Brickellia grandiflora (Hook.) Nutt. Tools Tied bunches of plants used as rough brooms.
Tepary Bean Phaseolus acutifolius var. latifolius Freeman Food Cultivated beans used for food.
Ceremony (Keres)  Beans made into a flour by the Koshairi and used for ritual purposes.
Texas Pricklypear Opuntia engelmannii var. lindheimeri (Engelm.) Parfitt & Pinkava Food Roasted in damp sand and eaten with chili.
Thinleaf Alder Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia (Nutt.) Breitung Dye Root bark, mountain mahogany root bark and wild plum root bark used to make a red dye for buckskin.
Thinleaf Onion Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia (Nutt.) Breitung Dye Soaked bark rubbed on buckskin as a red dye.
Torrey's Rush Juncus torreyi Coville Ceremony Ceremonially associated with water.
Threadleaf Snakeweed Gutierrezia microcephala (DC.) Gray Cooking Used in roasting sweet corn.
Ceremony Used as prayer stick decorations.
Thymeleaf Sandmat Chamaesyce serpyllifolia ssp. serpyllifolia Food Leaves chewed for the pleasant taste, root pieces used to sweeten corn meal.
Trailing Fleabane Erigeron flagellaris Gray Tools Tied bunches of plants used for brooms.
Tree Cholla Opuntia imbricata var. imbricata Food Fruits boiled and eaten with sweetened cornmeal porridge, young joints split lengthwise, dried and stored for winter use, roasted joints used for food during times of famine.
Sewing Thorns used as sewing material .
Tattooing Thorns used for tattooing.
Lighting Dried woody stems used for candles and torches before the presence of other forms of lighting.
Ceremony (Zuni)  Plant used ceremonially.
True Mountain Mahogany Cercocarpus montanus Raf. Dye Roots used as a red dye for buckskin.
Tools Bunches of tied bushes used for rough brooms, wood made into small tools, dried sticks used as spindles for fire by friction.
Weapons Wood made into arrow points.
Tanning Bark used to tan buckskin.
Tulip Pricklypear Opuntia phaeacantha var. camanchica (Engelm. & Bigelow) L. Benson Food Mountain tunas used for food.
Twoneelde Pinyon Pinus edulis Engelm. Food Nuts formerly used as a staple food, Nuts gathered and stored for winter use, nuts used for trade, nuts gathered in considerable quantities, roasted and used for food.
Cooking Pitch rubbed on stone to blacken and the stone used to make paper bread from black corn.
Paint Pitch mixed with ground lichens or mineral colors to make a paint medium.
Dye Gum used in the preparation of certain dyes.
Fastener Gum used in making turquoise mosaics, gum used to waterproof and repair pottery vessels.
Ceremony Pollen used for the Snake Ceremonial, leaves attached to prayer-feathers prepared during December ceremonies.
Protection Gum put on forehead when going outside of house as protection against sorcery.
Funerals Gum put on hot coals and fumes used to smoke people and their clothes after a funeral.
Upland Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. Ceremony Cotton used to make ceremonial garments, fuzz used alone or made into cords and used ceremonially in a number of ways.
Utah Juniper Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little Food Berries cooked in a stew, berries eaten with piki bread.
Decorration Seeds pierced and strung for beads in ancient times.
Utah Serviceberry  Amelanchier utahensis Koehne Ceremony Plant used to make pahos (prayer sticks).
Weapons Plant used to make bows and arrows.
Food Fruit formerly used for food.
Wax Currant Ribes cereum Dougl. Food Berries used for food.
Western Honey Mesquite Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana (L. Benson) M.C. Johnston Drink Pods crushed and steeped in water to make a beverage.
Food (Acoma)  Beans formerly ground into flour and prepared as mush, beans eaten raw or cooked as string beans.  (Keres)  Beans ground into a flour, made into a mush and used for food, beans eaten raw for the sweet taste or cooked like string beans.  (Isleta)  Beans ground into a flour and used to make bread, beans toasted and eaten as a confection by sucking out the juice, roasted beans eaten as a confection.  (Laguna)  Beans formerly ground into flour and prepared as mush, beans eaten raw or cooked as string beans.
Weapons Limbs used to make shafts for hunting arrows.
Western Sunflower Helianthus anomalus Blake Ceremony Petals dried, ground, mixed with yellow corn meal and used as a face powder in women's basket dance.
Western Tastymustard Descurainia pinnata (Walt.) Britt. Food Plant used as flavoring with meat or other vegetables, greens pit baked, cooled and served in salted water with corn dumplings, boiled bread or piki bread, plant cooked alone as greens, leaves boiled or roasted between hot, flat stones and eaten.
Pottery Flowers mixed with dark iron pigment used as a black color for pottery decoration.
Whipple Cholla Opuntia whipplei Engelm. & Bigelow Food Spineless fruits eaten raw or stewed, fruit, with the spines rubbed off, dried for winter use, dried fruit ground into a flour, mixed with parched corn meal and made into a mush.
Whiskey Currant Ribes cereum var. pedicellare Brewer & S. Wats. Food Fruits eaten fresh, fresh leaves eaten with uncooked mutton fat or with deer fat.
Weapons Wood used to make bows.
White Fir Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr. Decoration Plant used for decoration at dances and in the house.
White Prairieclover Dalea candida var. oligophylla (Torr.) Shinners Food Roots dried and ground into meal, dried roots ground into flour, roots eaten for the sweetness.
Tools Plant used for light brooms.
Whitestem Blazingstar Mentzelia albicaulis (Dougl. ex Hook.) Dougl. ex Torr. & Gray Food Seeds parched, ground into a fine, sweet meal and eaten in pinches, mashed seeds rolled into sticks and eaten.
Smoking Plant used as substitute for tobacco.
Whitestem Gooseberry Ribes inerme Rydb. Food Berries used for food.
Whitest Evening-primrose Oenothera albicaulis Pursh Ceremony (Zuni)  Chewed blossoms rubbed on the bodies of young girls so that they could dance well and ensure rain.
Wholeleaf Indian Paintbrush Castilleja integra Gray Ceremony (Acoma) Plant held by women for decoration during the harvest dance. 
Dye (Zuni) Root bark used with minerals to color deerskin black.
Whorled Milkweed Asclepias verticillata L. Food Leaves and young shoots boiled with meat and eaten, ripe seed silk mixed with grease and used as chewing gum.
Tools Used as a planting stick.
Clothing Pods gathered when two thirds ripe and the cotton used for weaving clothing.
Ceremony Coma made into cords and used for fastening plumes to the prayer sticks.
Wild Mint Mentha arvensis L. Food Boiled with mush for flavor, plant eaten as a relish.
Wild Potato Solanum jamesii Torr. Food Small tubers used for food.
Winged Pigweed Cycloloma atriplicifolium (Spreng.) Coult. Food Ground seeds used to make mush, tiny seeds ground, mixed with corn meal and made into steamed cakes.
Dye Seeds used to produce a pink dye.
Witchgrass Panicum capillare L. Tools Grass made into brooms and used to clean metates and metate boxes.
Winterfat Krascheninnikovia lanata (Pursh) A.D.J. Meeuse & Smit Ceremony Used in ceremonials to produce steam.
Woodland Strawberry Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Heller) Staudt Food Flavorful fruit considered a delicacy.
Wooly Paperflower Psilostrophe tagetina (Nutt.) Greene Dye Boiled, crushed flowers used for yellow paint or dye.
Ceremony Blossoms used by personators of anthropic gods for painting masks and for coloring bodies yellow.
Wooly Prairieclover Dalea lanata Spreng. Food Root eaten and regarded as sugar.
Wooton's Sandpuff Tripterocalyx carnea var. wootonii (Standl.) L.A. Gal. Ceremony Poultice of powdered seeds and water applied to swellings caused by being witched by a bullsnake.
Wright's Deervetch Lotus wrightii (Gray) Greene Medicine Poultice of chewed root applied to swellings caused by being witched by a bullsnake.
Wyoming Indian Paintbrush Castilleja linariifolia Benth.
Food Flowers eaten as food.
Ceremony Root and juniper bark chewed, mixed with white clay and used as ceremonial paint and to to decorate artificial squash blossoms, used ceremonially as the "Red Flower" associated with the southeast direction.
Decoration Used by maidens to deck their hair on holiday occasions.
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