Dialect: Potawatomi
Language: Ojibwa
Family: Central Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers 50   (1995 Potawatomi Language Institute)
      The Potawatomi were a sedentary hunter/farmer nation comprised of three or more tribes.  They fissioned late from the Chippewa and Ottawa and removed south to Michigan.  They apparently controlled all but the southeast portion of the Michigan lower peninsula prior to White arrival..  They sided with the French in the colonial war and the British in the War of 1812.  They had several conflict with Whites and other tribes resulting in numerous relocations and in the further fissioning of the nation.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
MI    (Huron, Prairie-Mascouten, Woods)
Present Locations
KA  Prairie Band Potawatomi, Mayetta; Potawatomi Reservation, Horton
MI   Hannahville Reservation, Wilson;  Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians, Athens
OK  Citizen Band of Potawatomi, Community House, Shawnee
ON  Caldwell First Nation, Caldwell
Year History
1615 Huron mentioned Potawatomi to Champlain as being on the side of the "Great Fresh Water Sea"
1634 Met by French explorer Nicolet
1641 Displaced from lower Michigan peninsula by Iroquois in beginning of Beaver Wars
1667 300 warriors met Allouez
1670 Met by French near Green Bay, but soon established themselves on the Milwaukee River, at Chicago, and on the St. Joseph River
1673 Smallpox epidemic
1765 Gained more Illinois and southern Michigan territory with the conquest of the Illinois nation
1777 Sided with the British in the Revolutionary War
1795 Moved down Wabash against Miami protest
1812 Defeated by U.S.
1815 Sided with English against U.S. until peace
1841 Pushed across Mississippi by White settlers
1846 Disposed of Iowa lands and removed to Kansas while some bands moved to Wisconsin, Ontario, and Michigan
1861 Treaty with U.S.
1869 Some went to new reservation in Oklahoma near Kickapoo, a few accompanied Kickapoo to Mexico
1913 Hannahville, Michigan reservation established
Year Total Population KA IL IN MI OK ON WI Source
1650 4,000 Mooney estimate
1700 3,500 1,000 1,000 1,500 NAHDB calculation
1800 3,000 1,500 500 500 500 NAHDB calculation
1900 2,750 650 50 1,600 200 250 NAHDB calculation 
1910 2,440 Census
1923 2,227 US Indian Office
1930 1,854 BIA
1981 6,698 BIA (Oklahoma & Hannahville)
1989 6,349 BIA estimate
2000 26,662 4,312 9,571 10,617 182 980 Misc.
2000 25,700 4,300 9,600 10,600 200 1,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Potawatomi Sites:
British Period in the Northwest:  1760-1795
Caldwell Potawatomi First Nation
Chief Pokagon and the Potawatomi Tribe
Citizen Potawatomi Economic Development Report
Citizen Potawatomi Nation
Forest County Potawatomi
Forest County Potawatomi Tribe
Hannahville Potawatomi Tribal Profile
Huron Potawatomi Indian Village
Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians
Potawatomi Authors
Potawatomi History
Potawatomi Indian Reservation, Wisconsin
Potawatomi Indians:  Facts for Kids
Potawatomi Indian Trail Resolution, 1994
Potawatomi Indian Tribe History
Potawatomi Language
Potawatomi Language
Potawatomi Language
Potawatomi Languiage
Potawatomi Linguistic Lineage
Potawatomi People
Potawatomi Treaty
Potawatomi Web
Potawatomi Wildlife Park
Prairie Band of Potawatomi Community Profile
Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation
Prairie Band Potawatomi Timeline

Last updated 06/16/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press