Ethnie: PONCA
Language: Omaha-Ponca
Family Dhegiha
Stock: Siouan Proper
Phylum: Siouan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers 60 speakers    1986 SIL
      The Ponca, as a component of the Omaha, were a hunter/farmer tribe which which plains buffalo hunters in the summer.  Little changed after they fissioned from the Omaha in 1755.  At first White contact, they were located on teh Missouri at the mouth of the Niobrara.  The force removal of the tribe to Indian Territory resulted in the death of about 200.
      They are two tribes today located in Nebraska and Oklahoma.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
IL (Omaha, Ponca)
Present Locations
NE   Ponca Tribe of Nebraska, Niobrara
OK  Ponca Tribe, White Eagle
Year History
167X Approximate time of removal from Illinois to Nebraska as a result of the domino effect of the Beaver Wars, mentioned as Mahas, a wandering nation on a Marwuette map which placed them just east of the Missouri in central Iowa
1700 Reference in Beaurain's "Memoire", Pierre Charles le Seur without visiting tribe recorded their location on the Big Sioux River, southeast of present Sioux Falls in South Dakota and with a population of 4,000
1735 First Omaha village west of the Missouri established on Bow Creek in present Cedar County, Nebraska
1755 Village establish near present location of tribe; Ponca fissioned form the Omaha
1804 Celebrated a Whe'wahchee or dance of thanksgiving, the first pow wow ever, witnessed by Lewis and Clark
1875 Ponca signed paper agreeing to move to Indian Territoryu
1876 Inspection of Osage Reservation in Indian Territory unsatisfactory to Standing Bear and other Ponca leaders, returned to Nebraska 
1877 Tribe forced to walk to Indian Territory to Quapaw Reservation, 25% of tribe remained in Nebraska, 25% losses during move
1879 One third of tribe died of malaria, son of Standing Bear died, chief returned to Omaha to bury his son, Standing Bear arrested by Gen Crook and interred at Fort Omaha, acquitted in trail, confiscation of Ponca land determined illegal, 255 could remain in Nebraska
1881 Ponca received land claims in Ft. Laramie Treaty
1890 Some Nebraska lands allotted to Ponce
Year Total Population NE OK Source
Arrival 0 Among Omaha
1700 0 NAHDB calculation
1780 800 800 Mooney estimate
1800 800 800 NAHDB calculation
1804 200 200 Lewis and Clark (partial)
1829 600 600 Swanton
1842 800 800 Swanton
1871 747 747 Swanton
1900 900 300 600 NAHDB calculation 
1906 833 US Indian Office
1910 875 Census
1930 939 Census
1937 1,222 US Indian Office
1981 2,065 BIA
1989 2,387 BIA estimate
2000 3,900 1,200 2,700 NAHDB calculation
2005 1,300 Tribe
Other speakers of the same language:
Ponca Sites:
Chief Standing Bear
Chief Standing Bear of the Ponca Indians
Chief White Eagle of the Ponca Tribe
Clans of the Ponca Tribe
Legend of Prairie Flower
Little Cook, Sam, Descendants
Nebraska History
Niobrara History
Omaha and Ponca Tribes
Omaha-Ponca Language
Omaha-Ponca Linguistic Lineage
Oregon Trail
Ponca Authors
Ponca City, Oklahoma and the Ponca Indian Tribe
Ponca Culture in our Own Words
Ponca History
Ponca Indian Cemetery
Ponca Indian Chief (Name unknown)
Ponca Indian Chief Yellow Buffalo
Ponca Indians
Ponca Indian Tribe
Ponca Reunited
Ponca Tribe
Ponca Tribe
Ponca Tribe of Nebraska Community Profile
Ponca Tribe of Nebraska Overview
Ponca Tribe's Trail of Tears
Standing Bear, Chief of the Poncas
Standing Bear Native American Foundation
Standing Bear Trial

Last updated 04/02/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press