Language: Upper Piman
Family: Tepiman
Stock: Uto-Aztecan
Phylum: Aztec-Tanoan
Macro-Culture: Southwestern Desert
Speakers 11,819 1990 Census including Tohono O'Odham
     The Pima were comprised of two separate hunter/farmer nations.  The Pima Alto lived in the valley of the Salt River and eventually extended into the valley of the Gila River and into Sonora, Mexico.  The Pima Bajo or Nevome lived in Sonora and are not covered in this analysis.
     Pima tradition maintains that the adobe ruins of their region, including Casa Grande, were built by their ancestors.  It continues that their old way of life was destroyed by three bands of foreigners who destroyed their pueblos, devastated their fields, and killed or enslaved many of their people.  The survivors fled to the mountains for some time, and upon returning, elected not to rebuild the pueblos.
     The Pima experienced early Spanish influence from missionization.  They suffered from Apache depredations and the influx of settlers and outlaws.  They nonetheless maintained substantial populations.
Aboriginal Locations
About 90 villages in AZ
Arizona Present Locations
AZ  Ak Chin Reservation, Ak Chin
       Gila River Indian Community, Sacaton
       Salt River Reservation, Scottsdale
Year History
1694 Visited by Father Kino
1731 Frs. Segresser and Grashoffer founded Missions San Xavier del Bac and San Miguel de Guevavi
1736 Visited by Fr. Ignacio Javier Keller
1751 Small Pima rebellion
1768 Visited by Fr. Garces
1769 Decrease in Spanish military presence resulted in increased Apache raids
1776 Presidio established at Tucson, 75 men
1853 Gadsden Purchase
1854 Railroad surveys
1856 Campaign with the US military against the Apache
1859 White settlers began to deplete water
1871 First school opened; beginning of 40 years of famine due to lack of water
1879 Railroad constructed; suffered from depredations of White settlers and outlaws, reservations established by Executive Order of Rutherford B. Hayes
1886 Pursued Geronimo with US military
1929 Coolidge Dam completed to provide water to Pima
1945 Pima Marine Ira Hayes helped to raise the American flag at Mt. Suribachi, Iwo Jima
2005 Water deal allowed for renewed farming
Year U.S. Population Source
1680 4,000 Mooney estimate
1700 4,000 NAHDB calculation
1775 2,500 Garces estimate
1800 2,500 NAHDB calculation
1900 3,900 NAHDB calculation
1906 3,936 Swanton
1910 4,236 Census
1923 5,592 US Indian Office
1930 4,382 Census
1937 5,170 US Indian Office
1973 11,081 BIA
1989 13,500 BIA Estimate
1990 15,000 FactMonster
2000 20,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Sobaipuri, Tohono O'Odham
Pima Sites:
Ak Chin Indian Community
Akimel O'Odham/Pima
American Indian Women as Art Educators
Aw-aw-tam Indian Nights
Ballad or Ira Hayes
Bluebird and the Coyote
Boy and the Beast
Casino Arizona
Fame of Padre Kino
Flood on Superstition Mountain
Gathering Cactus Fruit
Gila River Pilgrimage
Gila River Relocation Camp
Hayes, Ira Hamilton, Arlington National Cemetery
Hayes, Ira, Pima Tribe
History Pima Basket Tray
Hohokam Pima National Monument
How Rattlesnake Learned to Bite
Indian Lands
... Lessons Learned on the Pima Reservation
List of Birds, Pima Reservation
Miniature Pima Basket
Old Pima Indian Basket
O'Odham Language
Pima Basket
Pima Basket,native-american-pima,755004.html
Pima Basket
Pima Basket
Pima Basket
Pima Basket
Pima Basket
Pima Basket
Pima Basket
Pima Baskets
Pima Baskets
Pima Basket Tray
Pima Coiled Basket
Pima Cotton
Pima Indian Barn
Pima Indian Baskets
Pima Indian Drummer Boy Ornament
Pima Indian Legends
Pima Indian Polychrome Basket
Pima Proverbs
Pima Indians
Pima Indian Tribe, History
Pima Pottery
Piman People ...
Pima Olla
Pima Tray Basket
... Preserves Pima Indian Culture
Research in the Sierra Madre ...
River People
Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community
Sheraton:  Wild Horse Pass
Smithsonian Folkways Recordings
Stabilizing Indigenous Languages - Pima
Stanley Explores the Hohokam Culture
Superstition Mountain Story
Surrounded by Beauty, Pima Baskets
Taylor, Urshel, Pima Tribe
Toast to Ira Hayes
Tohono O'Odham and Akimel O'Odham Language
Tubac Chronology
Very Old Pima Figural Basket
Water Deal Allows for Gila ...

Last updated 01/26/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press