Heteromeles arbutifolia
Common Name Toyon, Christmasberry, California Holly
Latin Name Heteromeles arbutifolia
Family Rosaceae
Sunset zones / USDA zones 5-9, 14-24 / 7-11
Type / Form Shrub / Large
Native Habitat Dry slopes of mountains of California. from 1,000 to 5,000 feet
Soil Dry to moist, decomposed granite, sand, clay loam, limestone, low to some organic content, well drained
Exposure Full sun
Water Once to twice per month depending on soil in hot weather
Height X Width To 8 feet X 5 feet , 25' tall unusual
Protective Mechanism None
Leaves Evergreen, leaves oblong 2 to four inches
Flowers Showy, spike-like, many branched, terminal cluster of small (1/4 inch) white flowers, appearing in late spring and early summer
Bark / Roots Bark smooth, reddish gray with small lenticels. Twigs slender, yellow-green to reddish brown to gray, initially quite hairy, but later becoming smooth.
Maintenance Little
Propagation Seeds, but slow
Pests and Diseases Fire blight
Landscape uses Erosino control, windbreak, ground cover, espalier, barrier, low maintenance, fire retardant, hedge, background
Garden Suitability Thornless, Songbird, Fire Retardant, Ethnobotanical
Ornamental Value Small white flowers late spring to early summer, beautiful red fruit in clusters later, cold marginal
Nature Value Fruit eaten by birds and mammals
Native American Uses Fruit eaten
    Images and data http://www.californiagardens.com/Plant_Pages/heteromeles_arbutifolia.htm
    Images and data http://www.wildscaping.com/plants/plantprofiles/Heteromeles_Toyon.htm
    Images and data http://www.cnr.vt.edu/DENDRO/DENDROLOGY/Syllabus2/factsheet.cfm?ID=517
    Images and data http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heteromeles
    Images and data http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-calrecnum=4140
    Images and data http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=hear5
    Images and data http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/58417/
    Images and data http://www.coestatepark.com/heteromeles_arbutifolia.htm
    Images and data http://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Heteromeles_arbutifolia
    Images and data http://www.smmtc.org/plantofthemonth/plant_of_the_month_200512_Toyon.htm
    Data http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/hetarb/all.html
    Nursery, images and data http://www.laspilitas.com/plants/339.htm
    Nursery, images and data http://www.cnplx.info/nplx/species?taxon=Heteromeles+arbutifolia
    Nursery, images and data http://www.sanmarcosgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=832
    Nursery, images and data Oak Hills Nursery, 13874 Ranchero Road, Oak Hills, 92345, 760-947-6261
    Distribution map http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=HEAR5
  Note:  Considered fire retardant