Juniperus monosperma - Cone - oneseed juniper File:Juniperus monosperma UGA.jpg Juniperus monosperma - Whole tree - oneseed juniper
Juniperus monosperma - Twig - oneseed juniper Sabina monosperma Juniperus monosperma - Bark - oneseed juniper
Common Name Oneseed juniper
Latin Name Juniperus monosperma
Family Cupressaceae
Sunset zones / USDA zones 1-3, 10-11 /
Type / Form Shrub / Large
Native Habitat Southwest 3,000 to 7,000 feet
Soil Dry decomposed granite, sand, clay loam, low to some organic content, well drained
Water Once per month during hot periods
Exposure Full sun
Height X Width To 40 feet but typically much smaller
Protective Mechanism None
Leaves Evergreen, scale-like, pointed, most are tight and crowded on the twig in opposite pairs resulting in a slightly square twig, on vigorous shoots a few are awl-like and point away from the twig; yellow- to gray-green.
Flowers Dioecious; males are small pale yellow in large clusters at ends of twigs; females are small, round pale green. Berry-like cones, round, 1/4 inch in diameter, bluish brown glaucous, stays soft and juicy at maturity, 1 seed per fruit, matures in one growing season.
Bark / Roots Brown to gray with very irregular furrows and scaly, exfoliating ridges. Moderately stout, somewhat angular, initially covered with tight, yellow-green, scale-like leaves, later turning reddish brown.  / Mature oneseed junipers have both tap and lateral root systems
Maintenance Low
Propagation The seed requires a period of cold stratification. The seed has a hard seedcoat and can be very slow to germinate, requiring a cold period followed by a warm period and then another cold spell, each of 2 - 3 months duration. Soaking the seed for 3 - 6 seconds in boiling water may speed up the germination process. The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Some might germinate in the following spring, though most will take another year. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (when the embryo has fully formed but before the seedcoat has hardened). The seedlings can be potted up into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow on in pots until large enough, then plant out in early summer. When stored dry, the seed can remain viable for several years. Cuttings of mature wood, 5 - 10cm with a heel, September/October in a cold frame. Plant out in the following autumn. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months.
Pests and diseases  
Landscape uses Erosian control, low maintenance, background
Garden Suitability Mountain, Ethnobotanical, Songbird
Nature Value Foliage, cones, and berries food for numerous animals
Native American Uses Wood was used for bows and arrows. The "berries" were eaten whole or ground into flour for bread. Prayer sticks were made from wood, and dye, fibrous mats, and saddles were fashioned from the bark. Parts of the tree were also used as building materials and for medicinal purposes.
Links  
    Images and data http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/junmon/all.html
    Images and data http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juniperus_monosperma
    Images and data http://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers/1326/juniperus-monosperma-oneseed-juniper/
    Images and data http://www.conifers.org/cu/ju/monosperma.htm
    Images and data http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/species/jumo.htm
    Images and data http://www.nearctica.com/trees/conifer/juniper/Jmono.htm
    Images and data http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Juniperus%20monosperma
    Images and data http://www.naturesongs.com/vvplants/oneseedjuniper.html
    Images and data http://www.wnmu.edu/academic/nspages/gilaflora/juniperus_monosperma.html
    Images and data http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=jumo
    Images and data http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus2/factsheet.cfm?ID=659
    Images and data http://www.nazflora.org/Juniperus_monosperma.htm
    Images and data http://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/tree%20enlarged%20photo%20pages/sabina%20monosperma.htm
    Images and data http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500733
    Nursery Oak Hills Nursery, 13874 Ranchero Road, Oak Hills, 92345, 760-947-6261
    Distribution map http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JUMO
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