Language: Biloxi-Ofo
Family: Southeastern Siouan
Stock: Siouan
Phylum: Macro-Siouan
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers Extinct
      The Ofo were a sedentary hunter/farmer tribe which suffered in conflicts with larger tribes.  The early French knew them to be in southwestern Ohio before being driven south by the Iroquois during the Beaver Wars.  They are most closely related to the Biloxi.  They eventually joined the Tunica.
Aboriginal Locations (# of Villages)
Southwestern Ohio (8)
Present Locations
Extinct though some mixed blood descendants may be among Tunica
Year History
Living in eight villages in southwestern Ohio before being driven away by Iroquois (Beaver Wars)
1673 Marquette found tribe on east side of the Mississippi just south of the mouth of the Ohio
1682 Took refuge among the Taensa on Lake St. Joseph
1690 Living on the Yazoo River near the Tunica
1729 Natchez Uprising, Ofo did not participate but rather removed south to the Red River near the Tunica
1764 Took part in a attack on an English convoy ascending the Mississippi River
1784 In small village on west side of Mississippi above Point Coupee
1915 Last Ofo, Rosa Pierrette, died
Year Total Population MS Source
1700 600 Gravier (10 or 12 cabins)
1700 600 600 NAHDB calculation
1758 100 Gov. De Kerlerec (15 warriors)
1784 80 Swanton (12 warriors)
1800 0 NAHDB calculation
1900 0 NAHDB calculation 
1908 1 Swanton
2000 0 NAHDB calculation 
Other speakers of the same language:
Biloxi, Pascagoula
Ofo Sites:
Biloxi-Ofo Language
Biloxi-Ofo Linguistic Lineage
Last of the Ofos
Last of the Ofos, Chapter 6
Ofo Language

Last updated 08/12/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press