Language: Nootka (Nuu-Chah-Nulth)
Family: Southern Wakashan
Stock: Wakashan
Phylum: Wakashan
Macro-Culture: Northwestern
Speakers 200   2002 Poser  
       The Nootka were a large maritime language group located on the west coast of Vancouver Island from Cape Cook on the north to south of Port San Juan. They had numerous conflicts with the Whites as well as within their own tribes as a result disputes over White trade. Conflicts with Whites included attacks on trading ships on three separate occasions. They suffered population losses from European introduced diseases. They remain today in their aboriginal territories.
Aboriginal Locations (Villages)
BC   Ahousaht, Chaicclesaht, Clayoquot, Ehatisaht, Ekoolthaht, Hachaaht, Hesquiat, Kelsemaht, Klahosaht, Kwoneatshatka, Kyuquot, Manosaht, Mooachaht, Muchalat, Nitinat, Nuchalitz, Oiaht, Opitchesaht, Pacheenaht, Seshart, Toquart, Uchucklesit, Uclulet
Present Locations
BC   Ahousaht Indian Band, Ahousaht
        Hesquiaht Indian Band, Tofino
        Kyuquot Indian Band, Kyuquot
        Mowachaht, Gold River
        Nuchatlaht Indian Band, Tahsis
        Ohiaht Indian Band , Bamfield
        Opetchesaht Indian Band, Port Alberni
        Pacheenaht Indian Band, Port Renfrew
        Sheshaht Indian Band, Port Alberni
        Tla-o-qui-aht First Nation Indian Band, Tofino
        Toquaht Indian Band, Ucluelet
        Uchucklesaht Indian Band, Port Alberni
        Ucluelet Indian Band, Port Alberni
Year History
1592 Visited by Juan de Fuca
1640 Visited by Fuentes
1774 Ensign Juan Perez anchored at Nootka Sound
1778 Prolonged visit by Capt. Cook
1786 Visited by British vessels under Capts. Hanna, Portlock, and Dixon; thereafter trading began
1789 Spanish military post at Yuquot for six years
1790 Fur trade created huge wealth for some resulting in intense internal warfare; venereal diseases rampant
1792 Visited by George Vancouver
1803 Ship Boston out of New England attacked by Nootkas, all but 2 killed
1811 Ship Tonquin captured by Clayoquot band
1824 Smallpox epidemic
1843 Victoria settlement founded
1850 Began dogfish oil production
1864 Ahousaht band captured trading sloop Kingfisher, killed crew, 15 of band killed in retaliation
1875 Catholic mission established at Hesquait
Year BC Population   Source
1700 6,000   NAHDB calculation
1780 6,000   Mooney estimate
1800 6,500   NAHDB calculation
1835 7,500   Duff
1860 5,514   Sproat
1881 3,613   Dominion of Canada
1898 2,636   Dominion of Canada
1900 2,500   NAHDB calculation
1908 2,093   Dominion of Canada
1924 1,459   Dominion of Canada
1934 1,662   Dominion of Canada
1944 1,680   Dominion of Canada
1959 2,501   CDIA
1977 4,071   CDIA
1984 4,721   CDIA
2000 5,500   NAHDB calculation
2005 5,775   Indian Life Online
Other speakers of the same language:
Nootka Tribes Sites:
Ahousaht Indian Band
British Explorer James Cook ...
Cove Point
Curtis Photos
Ditidaht Indian Band
Earthquake of Enormous Magnitude ...
Encountering Native Americans
First British Ship on the NW Coast
Hesquiaht Indian Band
History of the Northwest Coast
Kyuquot Indian Band
Malaspina and Maquinna
Mowachah - Muchalaht First Nation
Mowachaht Indian Band
Muchalat Harry
Nootka Authors
Nootka Basket
Nootka Indian House
Nootka Language
Nootka Language
Nootka Language
Nootka Linguistic Lineage
Nootka Photos
Nootka Toys
Nuchatlaht Indian Band
Nuu-Cha-Nulth Language
Ohiaht Indian Band
Opetchesaht Indian Band
Pacheenaht Indian Band
Pacific Northwest Coastal Indians (for Kids)
Potlatch Festivals
Sheshaht Indian Band
Tla-o-qui-aht First Nation Indian Band
Toquaht Indian Band
Uchucklesaht Indian Band
Ucluelet Indian Band
Wakash Indians

Last updated 11/06/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press