Language: Nooksack
Family: Central Salish
Stock: Salish
Phylum: Mosan
Macro-Culture: Northwest Coast
Speakers   Langauge extinct  
       The Nootka were a hunter/gatherer located on Howe Sound and Burrard Inlet north of the mouth of the Fraser River when they were a component of the Squamish.  They soon fissioned and removed up river.  They eventually settled in Washington.  They had numerous conflicts with the Whites as well as within their own tribes as a result disputes over White trade.  They suffered population losses from European introduced diseases.
Aboriginal Locations
BC     Aboriginally among the Squamish in BC and separating and removing to the Fraser River in BC
Present Locations
WA Nooksack Tribe, Deming
Year History
1787 Strait of Juan de Fuca discovered by Charles Barkley
1790 Manual Quimper explored both shores of strait
1792 Area charted by Capt. George Vancouver
1827 Hudson Bay Company founded Fort Langley
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers began, conflicts followed
1843 Victoria post founded
1858 Fraser River gold rush; Nooksack ultimately attacked Bellliingham to protect properties
1870 Smallpox epidemic
1873 Attempts made to remove Nookack to Lummi Reservation, tribe refused and returned to Fraser River
1934 Agreed to terms of  Indian Reorganization Act
1973 Received federal recognition
Year WA Population   Source
1700 500   NAHDB calculation
1800 500   NAHDB calculation
1900 200   NAHDB calculation
1906 200   Official return
1910 85   Census
1937 239   US Indian Office
1981 694   BIA
1989 454   BIA
2000 1,600   NAHDB calculation
2005 1,768   Tribe
Other speakers of the same language:
Nooksack Tribe Sites:
Aboriginal History
Fraser River
Lummi and Nooksack Tribes
Nooksack Indian Reservation
Nooksack Indian Tribe
Nooksack Indian Tribe
Nooksack Indian Tribe of Washington
Nooksack Language
Nooksack Language
Nooksack Linguistic Lineage
Nooksack Program Revived Nearly Extinct Language
Nooksack Tribe Casino
Nooksack Tribe
Nooksack (tribe)
Nooksack Tribe History
Nooksack Tribe, Portland Area Office
Nooksack Tribe Starts Work to Save its History
Squamish Language
Squamish Language
Squamish Language
Squamish Language Plaque
Squamish Linguistic Lineage

Last updated 11/14/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press