Ethnie: MODOC
Language: Klamath-Modoc
Family: Klamath-Modoc
Stock: Plateau Penutian
Phylum: Penutian
Macro-Culture: Transition: Great Basin, Central Valley, Northwest California
Speakers 1   1988
     The Modoc were a hunter/gatherer tribe. They lived on Little Klamath Lake, Modoc Lake, Tule Lake, Clear Lake, Goose Lake, and in the Lost River Valley. The tribe came into contact with Whites at a relatively late period. They had conflicts with the Whites, their closest relatives, the Klamath, and they conducted slaving raids against the Achomawi. They were defeated in the Modoc War at the Lava Beds in California and many were removed to Oklahoma.
Aboriginal Locations
CA Little Klamath Lake, Lost River, Yule Lake (16 villages); OR Lost River (6 villages)
Present Locations
Year History
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers began, conflicts followed
1864 Ceded lands and retired to Klamath reservation; soon removed due to starvation and tensions with Klamath
1870 Chief Kintpuash (Captain Jack) led militant band back to California
1871 Began practice of Ghost Dance
1872 Attempts to force return to Oregon began Modoc War, Modocs retreated to lava beds for months, finally overrun, Kintpuash and 3 others hanged, 2 sent to Alcatraz, 153 sent to Quapaw Agency in Oklahoma, others to Klamath
1909 Several Oklahoma Modoc allowed to return to Klamath Agency
1954 Oklahoma and Oregon Modoc tribes terminated
1978 Oklahoma Modoc Tribes reinstated
Year US Population CA OK OR Source
1700 800 600 200 NAHDB calculation
1780 400 Mooney estimate
1780 800 Kroeber estimate
1800 800 600 200 NAHDB calculation
1900 300 250 50 NAHDB calculation
1905 278 Official
1910 329 Census
1937 329 U. S. Indian Office
1989 102 BIA
2000 500 400 100 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Modoc Sites
Butte Valley:  A Brief History
Captain Jack's Stronghold
Capt. James Jackson
Kaitchkona Woman - Modoc
Klamath - Modoc Baskets
Klamath-Modoc Indian Language
Klamath-Modoc Language
Klamath-Modoc Linguistic Lineage
Klamath - Modoc Linguistics Page
Lava Beds National Monument
Modoc Authors
Modoc Bibliography
Modoc Indian History
Modoc Indians:  A Native American Saga
Modoc Indian War Scene
Modoc Nation (Oklahoma)
Modoc - Native Americans
Modoc - Parairie du Rocher Bluffs
Modoc Prayer to a Slain Animal
Modoc - SFSU Narrative
Modoc - Surrender of the Modoc
Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma
Modoc War
Modoc War
Modoc War, 1872-1873
Modoc War, 1872-1873
Winema and the Modoc War

Last updated 07/26/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press