Language: Micmac
Family: Eastern Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers 7,310 (1998 Canadian statistics)
      The Micmac were a sedentary maritime language group comprised of seven chieftaincies. They occupied Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island,the eastern shore of New Brunswick as far north as Restigouche, the head of the Bay of Fundy, and the Aroostook Valley of Maine. They contributed to the extinction of the Beothuk. They were allied with he French against the British in wars lasting some 200 years.  They, nonetheless, maintained their populations.
Aboriginal Locations: Subdivisions (Villages)
ME   Aroostook (1)
NB   Restigouche (3)
NF   (1)
NS   Annapolis, Eskegawage, Keespoogwit, Memramcook, Shubenacadie (11)
RQ   Restigouche (3)
PE    (1)
Present Locations
ME   Aroostook Micmac, Caribou and Presque Isle
NB   Big Cove Reserve, Rexton
         Buctouche, Buctouche
         Burnt Church Indian Reserve, Burnt Church
         Eel Ground, Newcastle
         Eel River, Dalhousie
         Fort Folly, Dorchester
         Indian Island, Rexton
         Metepenagiag Mi’kmaq Nation, Red Bank
         Pabineau, Bathurst
         Red Band Indian Reserve, Red Bank
NS    Acadia, Yarmouth
         Afton Reserve, Afton
         Annapolis Valley, Cambridge Station
         Bear River Indian Reserve, Bear River
         Cambridge Indian Reserve, Annapolis Valley
         Chapel Island, St. Peters
         Eskasoni, Eskasoni
         Glooscap First Nation, Hantsport
         Membertou, Sydney
         Pictou Landing, Trenton
         Shubenacadie, Hants County
         Sydney, Sydney
         Truro, Truro
         Wagmatcook, Baddeck
         Whycocomagh, Whycocomagh
PE     Abegweit, Cornwall
         Lennox Island, Lennox
RQ    Gaspe, Gaspe
         Listiqui Mi'qmaq, Listiqui
         Maria Indian Reserve, Maria
Year History
1004 May have been encountered by Viking voyager Thorvard Ericsson
1497 Met by John Cabot who kidnapped three of tribe
1501 Basque, Spanish, French, British, and Irish fishing boats began fishing the Grand Banks every summer
1519 Fishermen began coming ashore to dry their catch and trade
1527 Basques established a whaling station on Canada coast
1534 Met Jacques Cartier and began trading
1541 Cartier tried, but failed, to establish a permanent settlement on the St. Lawrence River
1564 Epidemic
1570 Epidemic
1583 British Sir Humphrey Gilbert attempted to settle Newfoundland but failed due to weather
1586 Typhus epidemic
1604 Permanent French trading posts established
1605 Champlain settled in Nova Scotia's Annapolis Basin
1607 Trade hostilities caused Tarrateen War which broke out between the Bashaba's Penobscot confederacy and the Micmac and their Maliseet allies
1610 Jesuit missionaries arrive at Port Royal
1613 British destroyed both the Mont-Deserts mission and Port Royal
1616 French had rebuild Port Royal
1617 Epidemic
1619 British return and burned Port Royal for a second time but the French rebuilt the post
1628 British defeated French fleet at Port Royal
1629 Sir William Alexander attempted to establish a British settlement with Scottish settlers at Acadia
1632 Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye restored Quebec and Maritimes to France; the French reoccupied Port Royal, expelled the Scots, and burned the British trading post on the Penobscot River
1633 French attacked British post at Machias, Maine and warned Boston traders to remain south of Kennebec River
1654 Robert Sedgwick's fleet from Boston captured Port Royal and the other French settlements on the Bay of Fundy
1667 Acadia was returned to France by the Treaty of Breda
1688 King William's War (1688-97) between Britain and France brought Micmac into conflict as a member of the Abenaki Confederation; Abenaki and Micmac raids terrorized New England throughout the war
1701 Raids resumed with the Queen Anne's War (1701-13)
1704 French repulsed British at Port Royal
1707 Port Royal fought off two more British attacks
1710 British captured Port Royal
1713 Treaty of Utrecht gave Acadia and Newfoundland to Great Britain; British renamed Acadia Nova Scotia
1717 New England began expansion into Abenaki and Micmac territories who resisted
1724 Micmac raided British garrison at Annapolis Royal killing two and wounding several in revenge for British raid
1725 Abenaki, Maliseet, and Micmac signed treaties with New England
1744 King George's War between Britain and France; Micmac and Maliseet began attacking British outposts; French fail in two attempts to take Port Royal but British army became ineffective
1748 French ended their support for the Micmac on Cape Breton thus reducing violence
1749 Micmac attacked British settlements at Chebucto and Canso; the British ultimately offered £10 for every Micmac scalp or pris
1752 Micmac signed a treaty with the British
1755 French and Indian War (1755-63).began, Micmac raids began in Nova Scotia; 7,000 Acadians deported but many escaped to fight alongside the Micmac
1756 British began paying £30 for Micmac warrior scalps and £25 for women and children prisoners
1760 Micmac, Maliceet, and Passamaquoddy signed treaty with British
1779 Last of Micmac accepted peace with the British
1991 Aroostook Band of Micmac of Maine received federal recognition
Year Total Population ME NB NF NS PE RQ Source
1600 3,500 Mooney estimate
1611 3,500 Bird estimate
1700 3,200 200 500 200 1,600 200 500 NAHDB calculation
1760 3,000 Swanton
1800 3,500 200 500 200 1,900 200 500 NAHDB calculation
1884 4,037 Official
1900 3,900 200 1,400 200 1,500 300 300 NAHDB calculation 
1904 3,861 Canadian Office of Indian Affairs
1992 480 480 U. S. Congressional Record
2000 26,300 1,000 7,000 2,300 11,000 3,500 1,500 NAHDB calculation 
2003 7,080 2,366 11,845 3,766 1,634 Nationmaster
2005 987 Arrostook Micmac
Other speakers of the same language:
Micmac Sites:
Afton Mi'Kmaq First Nation
Annapolis Valley First Nation
Aroostook Band of Micmac Indians 
Aroostook Band of Micmacs
Big Cove First Nation
Eskasoni Reserve
First Nation Mi'kMaq'kMaq.htm
Fort Folly First Nation
Gespeg Micmac Nation
Governor's Visit to Micmac at Bay D'Espoir
Indian Head First Nations
Membertou First Nation
Metepenagiag First Nation
Miawpukek Reserve
MicMac Antler and Bone Jewelry
Micmac Baskets
Micmac Crafts, Miawpukek Reserve
Micmac Creation Story
Micmac History
Micmac Homeland
Micmac Indian Dream Catchers
Micmac Indian Fact Sheet
Micmac Indian Tribe History
Micmac Language
Micmac Language
Micmac Linguistic Lineage
Micmac Literature
Micmac Medicine Manual
Micmac Native Friendship Centre
Micmac Reinacts 1776 Treaty with U.S.
Micmac Religious Traditions
Micmac of Megumaagee
Micmac of Nova Scotia
Micmac Tribe
Mi'kmaq Authors
Mi'kmaq Culture
Mi'kmaq: Identity and language
Mi'kmaq Language
Mi'kmaq (Micmac)
National Lnu Association
New Brunswick First Nations
Platt's Point War
Syliboy, Alan
Ste Anne de Ristigouche
St. George's Bay Mi'kmaq
Traditional Mi'kmaq Culture
Waycobah First Nation

Last updated 12/10/08  Copyright © 2008 by Four Directions Press