Language: Menominee
Family: Central Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers Nearly extinct
      The Menominee were a sedentary hunter/farmer nation. They ranged across northern Wisconsin and into Michigan. Their prehistoric location may have been in Michigan.
      The constant involvement of the Menominee in war against other tribes and against the British on the side of the French, and later on the side of the British against the Americans resulted in considerable population losses. They were severely affected by smallpox as well. Their present reservation is within their aboriginal territory.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
MI    Misinimak Kimiko Wininiwuk
WI    Kakapakato Wininiwuk, Kakanikone Tusininiwug, Kipisakia Winiwiwuk, Manitowuk Tusininiwug, Mact Suamako Tisinini, Minikani Wininiwuk, Muhwao Sepeo Wininiwuk, Namao Wikito Tusini, Okatao Wininiwuk, Pasatiko Wininiwuk, Powahekune Tusininiwug, Suamakosa Tusinini, Wiskos Sepeo Wininiwuk
Present Locations
WI   Menominee Reservation, Keshena
Year History
1634 Visited by explorer Jean Nicolet
1667 Extended territories west hunting for fur
1669 Probable end of Sturgeon War with Chippewa, visited by Jesuit Claude Allouez
1670 Established peace with Potawatomi
1671 Arrival of missionary Louis Andre
1684 Aided Denunville against Iroquois
1712 Aided French against Foxes
1730 Battle with Foxes
1752 Joined Sauk, Foxes, Potawatomi in attack on Illinois
1755 Aided French in rout of British General Braddock on Monongahela, killed or wounded 300
1757 Aided French at Ft. William Henry, captured 500 British
1778 Attacked by Chippewa, two chiefs, many others killed
1798 War with Chippewa and Sioux
1812 Aided British in war with US
1831 25 men murdered by Sauk and Foxes
1834 Smallpox epidemic, lost 30% of tribe
1854 Cholera epidemic; ceded all of their lands except for a reserve on the Wolf River
1863 Smallpox epidemic, 50 died
1961 Suffered effects of Termination Act
1973 Termination Act repealed
Year Total WI Population Source
1700 4,000 NAHDB calculation
1800 4,000 NAHDB calculation
1842 2,464   Tribal roll
1870 1,400   Chief Keshena estimate
1900 1,400 NAHDB calculation 
1910 1,422 Census
1923 1,838 US Indian Office
1930 1,969 Census
1937 2,221 US Indian Office
1954 3,254 Tribal roll
1957 3,270   Tribal roll
1989 3,684   BIA
2000 7,000 NAHDB calculation
2005 7,200   Tribal roll
Other speakers of the same language:
Menominee Sites:
British Period in the Northwest:  1760-1795
College of the Menominee Nation
College of the Menominee Nation
College of the Menominee Nation
Legacy of Chief Oshkosh
Menominee Authors
Menominee Casino - Bingo - Hotel
Menominee Culture
Menominee Facts
Menominee History
Menominee History
Menominee Indian Reservation
Menominee Indians
Menominee Indians
Menominee Indian School District
Menominee Indian tribe History
Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin
Menominee Language
Menominee Language
Menominee Language
Menominee Linguistic Lineage
Menominee Oral Tradition
Menominee Regalia
Menominee Termination and Restoration
Menominee Treaties and Treaty Rights
Sturgeon: Menominee Indian Tribe youth & EPA Earth Challenge  Video

Last updated 12/07/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press