Language: River Yuman
Family: Yuman
Stock: Esselen-Yuman
Phylum: Hokan
Macro-Culture: Colorado River
Speakers 181 1990 Census
     The Maricopa were a sedentary hunter/farmer nation.  They were located along the Gila from about the mouth to about the Agua Fria.  In ancient times, elders say they lived in valleys west of the Colorado.
     Though closely related to the River Yumans, they were often attacked by them, as well as the Apache.  They absorbed other Yuman speaking refugees from River Yuman aggression.
Aboriginal Locations
67 villages along the Gila River
Arizona Present Locations
Gila River Indian Community Council, Sacaton
Salt River Reservation, Scottsdale
Year History
1604 Encountered by Onate
1701 Visited by Kino
1775 Began long war with Yuma
1781 Joined by the Kohuana and later by the Halchidhoma
1844 Cholera epidemic, four medicine men blamed, killed at Gila Crossing
1857 In alliance with Pime, defeated attacking Yuma at Maricopa Wells
1859 Reservation established for Maricopa and Pima
1866 Many removed to Salt River due to demands placed on water by Whites, malaria epidemic
1871 Measles epidemic
1876 Reservation enlarged by Executive Order
1879 Executive Order revoked and new lands set aside
1882 Tuberculosis epidemic; reservation enlarged
1883 Reservation enlarged (all such acts by Executive Order)
1890 Presbyterian Church established
1898 Smallpox epidemic
1905 Under Pima school superintendent 
Year U.S. Population Source
1680 2,000 Mooney
1700 3,000 NAHDB calculation
1774 3,000 Garces estimate
1800 2,000 NAHDB calculation
1900 400 NAHDB calculation
1910 386 Census
1923 360 US Indian Office
1930 310 Census
1937 339 US Indian Office
1989 700 NAHDB estimate using BIA data
1990 400 Census
2000 800 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Diegueno (Kumeyaay), Halykwami, Kamia, Kohuana
Maricopa Sites:
Basketry:  Philosophy, Plants, Environment
Bonine, Elias A., Maricopa Indian
Casino Arizona
Ceramic Tradition in Central Arizona
Gila River Indian Community
Maricopa Indian
Maricopa Indian Girl
Maricopa Indians
Maricopa Indian Tribe
Maricopa Language
Maricopa Language
Maricopa Linguistic Lineage
Maricopa Pottery
Maricopa Pottery
Pima/Maricopa History
Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community
Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community
Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community
Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community
Who Is a Tribal Indian ...?

Last updated 12/07/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press