Ethnie: LUMMI
Language: Salish-Straits
Family: Straits
Stock: Central Salish
Phylum: Salishan
Macro-Culture: Northwest
Speakers 60   1990 M. D. Kincade (total language)
     The Lummi were a sedentary coastal hunter/gatherers and relied heavily on fishing.  The tribe lived on the upper part of Bellingham Bay about the mouth of the Nooksack River.  They were known to frequent a group of islands east of Vancouver Island.  They suffered from the White influx.  Subsequent to 1855, the Samish tribe is included in its population numbers.
Aboriginal Locations (Villages)
WA  (12)
Present Locations
WA  Lummi Reservation, Bellingham
Year History
1787 Strait of Juan de Fuca discovered by Charles Barkley
1788 Visited by Mears
1790 Manual Quimper explored both shores of strait
1792 Area charted by Capt. George Vancouver
1827 Hudson Bay Company founded Fort Langley
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers began, conflicts followed
1850 Christianized by Rev. Casimir Chirouse
1855 Treaty of Point Elliot
Year  Population Source
1700 800 NAHDB calculation 
1780 800 NAHDB estimate based on Mooney estimate
1800 600 NAHDB calculation
1900 450 NAHDB calculation
1905 412 Official
1910 353 Census
1923 505 US Indian Office
1937 661 US Indian Office
1981 2,290 BIA
1989 2,846 BIA
2000 3,400 NAHDB calculation
2003 3,519 IHS
2005 4,219 Enrolled
Other speakers of the same language:
Semiahmoo, Songish
Lummi Sites:
Coast Salish Bibliography
Lhaq'temish: People of the Sea
Lummi Authors
Lummi Healing Poles
Lummi Indian Nation
Lummi Indian Nation
Lummi Indian Tribe and Life with Salmon
Lummi Indians
Lummi Indians and Salmon
Lummi Nation
Lummi Nation School
Lummi Place Premium on Recovering Language
Lummi School Sees Big Changes
Lummi Totem Pole Ceremony
Lummi Totem Pole Memorial to WTC Victims
More Indian Remains Found at Blaine Site
Plagued by Drugs, Tribes Revive Ancient Penalty
Potlatch Economics
Saanich Language
Salish-Straits Language
Salish-Straits Linguistic Lineage
Schooling Has Lasted Lifetime for Lummi Cultural Teacher
Treaty of Point Elliot
Tsunami Evacuation Plan
Vancouver Begins British Survey of Puget Sound, 1792

Last updated 11/26/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press