Lipan Apache



Language: Western Apachean
Family: Apachean
Stock: Athapaskan
Phylum: Na-Dene
Macro-Culture: Southwestern
Speakers 2 or 3      1981 R.W. Young
     Most Apacheans began to arrive in the southwest from Canada late in the 15th century.  These first Apaches were nomadic predatory bands which preyed on the sedentary peoples of the area.  The Lipan Apache ranged over New Mexico east of the Rio Grande, but were primarily in west Texas.  They were enemies of the predatory Comanches, Wichita, and Kiowa.  Most survivors eventually flew to Mexico, though some joined the Mescalero Apache with whom they are now enumerated.
Aboriginal Divisions
TX  (3)
Present Locations
Most removed to Mexico though some merged into the Mescalero Apache in New Mexico
Lipan Apache Tribe of Corpus Christi TX
Year History
1757 San Saba Mission established but broken up by the Comanche and Wichita
1761 Missions San Lorenzo and Candelaria founded
1764 Smallpox epidemic
1767 Missions San Lorenzo and Candelaria destroyed by Comanche and Wichita
1805 Three bands of the tribe reported
1821 Treaty with Mexico
1838 Treaty with Texas
1839 Sided with Whites against Comanche
1845 Suffered in conflicts with Whites
1856 Suffered in conflicts with Whites, most removed to Coahuila, Mexico
1903 19 survivors taken to Chihuahua
1905 Survivors brought to Mescalero Reservation
Year Population Source
1690 500 Mooney estimate
1700 500 NAHDB calculation
1800 650 NAHDB calculation
1805 650 3 bands reported
1900 50 NAHDB calculation
1910 28 Census
2000 0 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Jicarilla Apache, Kiowa Apache
Lipan Apache Sites:
Apache Authors
Inde Apache Literature
Lipan Apache
Lipan Apache
Lipan Apache
Lipan Apache
Lipan Apache
Lipan Apache Bibliography
Lipan Apache Indians
Lipan Apache in Texas
Lipan Apache Language
Lipan Apache Linguistic Lineage
Lipan Apache Nation
Lipan Apache Tribe
Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas
Lipan Apache Women's Defense ...  Video
Peyote Use
South Texas Indian Dancers
Texas Apaches
Why the Bat Hangs Upside Down

Last updated 11/15/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press