Ethnie: LAKOTA
Dialect: Lakota
Language: Dakota
Family: Central Mississippi Valley Siouan 
Stock: Siouan Proper
Phylum: Siouan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
      The Sioux were a language group and culture.  Prehistorically, they were apparently a component of the Indian Knoll Culture of the south, removing from that area about 1000 B.C.  They became sedentary hunter/farmers along the Mississippi in southern Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin.  Ultimately, all of the Lakota and some of the Dakota and Nakota were driven out onto the Great Plains by the Chippewa where they became nomadic hunter/gatherers.  This created an eastern woodlands division of the tribe and a prairie division, with the greater part of the population in the latter.
      The Lakota were, for the most part, bellicose and had many enemies, particularly on the plains where they lived in a constant state of war.  They allied with the Cheyenne and Arapaho, and were the most formidable opponents of White expansion.  The Lakota, under leaders like Little Crow, Sitting Bull, Red Cloud, and Crazy Horse handed White expansionists several defeats before the final blow at Wounded Knee in 1890.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
Minnesota and Wisconsin
Present Locations
ND     Standing Rock Reservation, Fort Yates
SD      Cheyenne River Reservation, Eagle Butte
           Crow Creek Reservation, Thompson
           Lower Brule Reservation, Brule
           Pine Ridge Reservation, Pine Ridge
           Rosebud Reservation, Rosebud
Year History
1640 First mentioned in the Jesuit Relation
1765 Some first reached the Black Hills, driven west by Chippewa
1801 Smallpox epidemic
1804 Met by Lewis and Clark
1811 Met Wilson Rice Hunt expedition on the Missouri River, traded
1837 Smallpox epidemic; sold all of their territories east of the Mississippi to U. S.
1848 War with Mandan
1851 First Treaty of Fort Laramie recognized tribes
1853 Received huge amount of corn from Arikara, prevented famine
1854 War over Grattan affair
1855 Gen. Harvey massacred 85, captured 70 women and children
1866 War of Bozeman Trail, Red Cloud's War
1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie established Great Sioux Reservation
1875 Black Hills Gold Rush started war, dispute between Red Cloud and Crazy Horse divided Lakota
1876 Defeated Gen. Custer at Little Big Horn River with help of Cheyenne, Black Hills War under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
1877 Dull Knife, Lame Deer, and Crazy Horse defeated, Sitting Bull escaped to Canada, Crazy Horse killed in captivity; U. S. government forced takeover of Black Hills
1881 Sitting Bull surrendered
1889 Act of Congress split the Great Sioux Reservation into six smaller reservations
1890 Sitting Bull murdered on the Standing Rock Reservation, following this ... massacre of Big Foot's band killing more than 250 at Wounded Knee by U. S. Army for conducting "illegal" ghost dance
1973 American Indian Movement (AIM) took over Wounded Knee in armed conflict, occupied for 71 days, began three year conflict on Pine Ridge Reservation, 60 of tribe were killed
1976 Pine Ridge goon squads disbanded ending Pine Ridge civil conflicts
1980 Lakota refused $180 million in payment for stolen Black Hills
Year Total Pop. MN ND SD Source
Arrival 25,000 25,000
1700 20,000 20,000 NAHDB calculation
1800 25,000 500 4,500 20,000 NAHDB calculation
1900 15,000 500 4,000 10,500 NAHDB calculation 
1904 15,627 Census
2000 72,000 12,000 60,000 NAHDB calculation
2004 75,663 12,723 62,940 Various
Sioux Sites:
AIM, Pine Ridge, and the FBI
Akta Lakota Museum
Badlands:  Human History
Battle of the Little Big Horn
Battle of the Little Big Horn, 1876
Big Foot
Blackfeet Sioux Treaty - 1865
Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show
Camping With the Sioux:  ... Alice Cunningham Fletcher
Catlin Sioux Paintings
Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation
Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe Overview
Chief Sitting Bull
Collection of Wisdom
Crazy Horse
Crazy Horse
Crazy Horse
Crazy Horse
Crazy Horse Family Reconciliation
Crazy Horse Monument
Crazy Horse Poetry:  Sherman Alexie
Crazy Horse Photo [?]
Crow Creek Agency
Crow Creek Reservation
Dakota/Lakota Singing
Dakota Lakota Sioux Language
Dakota Language
Decline and Fall of the Sioux Nation
Dreamcatcher Story
First Nations of Minnesota
Ghost Dance, Mooney's Illustrations
Great Sioux Nation
Great Sioux Nation
Interview with Lakota Indian  Video
Lakhota Language
Lakota Astronomy
Lakota Creation Myth
Lakota Creations Art Gallery
Lakota - Culture and Spirituality
Lakota Iyapi
Lakota Language
Lakota Linguistic Lineage
Lakota, Nakota, Dakota
Lakota ns Dakota Wowapi Oti Kin
Lakota of the Plains
Lakota Oglala Tribe of the Pine Ridge Reservation
Lakota Reservation 1868
Lakota Rites, Ceremonies, and Symbolism
Lakota (Sioux)
Lakota Sioux Dancing  Video
Lakota Sioux History
Lakota Sioux Indian Village
Lakota Tribes of the Great Plains
Lakota Voices  Video
Lakota Winter Counts
Life on the Rez:  A Young Person's Perspective  Video
Lower Brule Sioux Tribe Overview
Lower Sioux Mdewakanton Dakota Reservation
Malakota - I am Lakota
Oglala Sioux Tribe
Old Indian Days
Origin of the Prairie Rose
Pine Ridge Life and Conditions
Pine Ridge Reservation
Pine Ridge Reservation
Red Cloud
Red Cloud
Red Cloud
Red Cloud
Red Cloud
Red Cloud Indian School
Rosebud Reservation
Rosebud Sioux Tribe
Rosebud Sioux Tribe
Rosebud Sioux Tribe Overview
Sioux Authors
Sioux Elders Hold Peaceful Takeover of Tribal Council Building
Sioux Indian Bibliography
Sioux Indian Museum
Sioux Indians
Sioux Language
Sioux Literature
Sioux Nation - Lakota, Dakota, Nakota
Sioux Tribe
Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill
Sitting Bull College
Sitting Bull's Death
South Dakota Indian Tribes
Spirit Lake Nation
Standing Rock Reservation
Standing Rock Reservation Horses Part of Tribe's Teaching
Tatanka Iyotanka
Tatanka Yotanka
Unkpapa Sioux Portraits
Wood Mountain Reserve Profile
Wounded Knee ...
Wounded Knee Massacre
Wounded Knee Massacre
Wounded Knee Massacre:  Lakota Accounts

Last updated 04/01/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press