Language: Kalispel-Pend d'Orielle
Family: Southern Interior Salish
Stock: Interior Salish
Phylum: Salishan
Macro-Culture: Northwest Plateau
Speakers 200 1997 SIL
     The Lake were hunter/gatherer tribes of the Northwestern Plateau which were closely related to the Kalispel.  Prehistorically, the tribe was driven south from Canada by the Cree and Athapaskan tribes.  They lived on both sides of the Columbia River above Kettle Falls to above the Canadian border, in the valley of the Kettle River, on the Kootenay from its mouth to the first falls and in the region of Arrow Lake in British Columbia. They are now enumerated with the Colville.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
BC (10%), ID (90%)
Oregon Present Locations
WA Colville Reservation, Nespelem
Year History
1781 Smallpox epidemic
1805 Nay have been the Lahanna of Lewis and Clark
1809 David Thompson established Kullyspell House trading post on Lake Pend d'Orielle
1810 David Thompson established Spokane House
1811 David Thompson explored the length of the Columbia River
1820 Fort Colville trading post established in territories
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers began, conflicts followed
1846 Jesuit Fr. Adrian Hoeken began Christianization of tribe
1872 Confederated onto Colville Reservation
Year U.S. Population BC WA Source
1700 500 100 400 NAHDB calculation
1780 500 100 400 Mooney estimate
1800 500 100 400 NAHDB calculation
1872 239 When confederated onto Colville Reservation
1900 0 NAHDB calculation (enumerated with Colville)
1910 785 Census on Colville Reservation)
2000 0 NAHDB calculation 
Other speakers of the same language:
Lake Sites:
Colville Indian Reservation
Dictionary of the Kalispel or Flathead Language
Fur Trader David Thompson Explores the Pend d'Orielle River - 1809
Lake Indians
Northwest Plateau Culture and Ethnobotany

Last updated 11/11/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press