Kiowa Apache



Language: Kiowa Apache
Family: Eastern Apachean
Stock: Apachean
Phylum: Na-Dene
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers 18   (1990 Census)
      The Kiowa Apache were a nomadic, sometimes predatory, hunter/gatherer tribe.  They lived generally in southern Montana at the head of the Missouri River.  Their traditions indicate they migrated there along with the Kiowa from the north.  They and the Kiowa were driven from their Montana territories probably by the Arapaho about 1700.
      The tribes first settled in the Black Hills about 1775.  Lewis and Clark later found them on the North Platte River in Colorado.  Once they finally migrated to the Southern Plains, they allied with the Comanche (1832) and began to prey on the sedentary tribes and White settlers of that region.  It was then too that they began their annual Sun Dances. Subsequent to 1850, the fortunes of the Kiowa and Kiowa Apache followed those of the Comanche.
Aboriginal Locations
MT Subdivisions:  1
Present Locations
OK  Kiowa-Apache Tribe, Anadarko
Year History
1700 Removed from Montana and Wyoming where the tribe was allied with the Crow
1748 Living on upper Platte and Arkansas Rivers, mentioned as enemy of New Mexico
1775 Had migrated to the Black Hills, thereafter known to visit Hidatsa, Arikara, and Mandan on Missouri River; learned the Sun Dance from the Hidatsa
1785-1805 Driven from Black Hills by Dakota and Cheyenne
1805 Reported by Lewis and Clark as living on the North Platte (Colorado), had war with Comanche over land on the Arkansas River but later made peace and the two tribes joined in raids on frontier settlements in Texas and as far south as Durango, Mexico
1815 Moved further down the Platte to the Colorado/Nebraska border
1829 Moved to "home country", claimed along with Comanche country encompassing present El Reno OK, Wichita KA, Las Animas CO, Clayton NM, and Tascosa TX; began practicing Sun Dance 
1833 Suffered massacre by the Osage
1836 War party of 100 Comanche, Caddo, Kiowa, and Wichita attacked with Fort Parker, probably after having been swindled on a horse deal, killed 5 and captured 5 including 9 year old Cynthia Ann Parker, future mother of Quanah Parker
1837 Treaty with US at Fort Gibson
1839 Smallpox epidemic
1840 Made peace with the Cheyenne and Arapaho
1862 Smallpox epidemic
1864 Kit Carson attacked Kiowa, Kiowa Apache, and Comanche at Adobe Walls and destroyed winter stores
1865 Medicine Lodge Treaty set aside reservation Kiowa, Kiowa Apache and Comanche including Oklahoma land and all of Texas panhandle, 39 million acres
1867 All of Texas land and part of Oklahoma land in second Medicine Lodge Treaty, retained 2.9 million acres
1872 4th Cavalry killed 30, captured 124 at McClellan Creek, MacKenzie attack at Palo Duro Canyon, killed 8, captured 1,500 horses
1874 Settled on land after the last outbreak of the Southern Plains tribes at Adobe Walls, Red River War
1875 Quanah Parker became chief of the Comanche, Kiowa Apache, and Kiowa and became a federal judge
1892 Measles epidemic
1903 Quanah, Acme, and Pacific Railroad founded
Year Total Population CO MT OK Source
1700 300 300 NAHDB calculation
1780 300 Mooney estimate
1800 300 300 NAHDB calculation
1900 150 150 NAHDB calculation
1910 139 Census
1930 184 US Indian Office
1989 832 832 BIA estimate
2000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Kiowa Apache Sites
Chipeta (1823-1924)
Kiowa Apache
Kiowa Apache
Kiowa Apache Indians
Kiowa Apache Indian Tribe History
Kiowa Apache Language
Kiowa Apache Linguistic Lineage
Kiowa Apache Snake dance
Kiowa Apache White Buffalo Woman Legend
Kiowa, Comanche, Apache Lands
Kiowa, Comanche, Apache Reservation
Kiowa Five (Artists)
Kiowa Indian Chiefs and Leaders
Kiowa Indians
Kiowa Images
Kiowa Myths
Kiowa Tribe
Kiowa Tribe
Plains Apache
Texas Kiowa Indians
Treaty with the Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche

Last updated 11/08/09  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press