Language: Kickapoo
Family: Central Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
      The Kickapoo were a sedentary hunter/farmer tribe.  They were closely related tot he Sauk and Fox and their language may have been mutually intelligible.  They were in southern Wisconsin when first encountered by the French.
      They fought against the U. S. in both the War of 1812 and the Black Hawk War.  Conflicts with other tribes and Whites resulted in several relocations, even as far south as Mexico where more than 300 remain today.  Most of the tribe eventually settled in two bands on Kansas and Oklahoma, and a more recently federally recognized band in Texas.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
IL       Etnatael (1), Kickapougowi (1)
Present Locations
KA    Kickapoo Reservation, Horton
OK    Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma, Community House
TX     Kickapoo Traditional Tribe, Eagle Pass
Year History
1658 Jesuit missionary Druilettes refers to Outichakouk, possibly this tribe
1667 Visited by Allouez in Wiscomsin
1728 Allied with the Fox against the French in the Second Fox Was
1729 Switched to French side in war in dispute with Fox when Kickapoo refused to kill some prisoners
1755 Vermillion band fought for French in French and Indian War
1758 Smallpox epidemic
1762 Crop failure and epidemics
1763 Supported Pontiac against British, forces captured nine of twelve British forts west of Appalacians
1765 Moved to about Peoria after destruction of Illinois
1777 Slaughter the Kaskaskias over the assassination of Ottawa chief Pontiac
1790 Participated in Little Turtle's War, 400 US soldiers killed
1795 Treaty of Fort Greenville, ceded lands
1809 Ceded Illinois lands, moved to Missouri and Kansas, most moved to Missouri
1812 Fought against US in War of 1812
1819 Treaties of Edwardsville and Fort Harrison
1832 Sided with Sauk in Black Hawk War
1834 Remained of Illinois Kickapoo forced to move to Kansas by military
1837 Sided with US in war against Seminole
1852 Band moved to Texas with Potawatomi and them on to Mexico
1863 Mexican Kickapoo joined by others
1873 Some Mexican Kickapoo returned and settled in Oklahoma and Texas, about half of the tribe remained in Mexico on reservation in Santa Rosa
Year Total Pop. IL KA OK TX WI Source
1650 2000 Mooney estimate
1700 2,500 2,500 NAHDB calculation
1759 3,000 Mooney estimate
1800 2,300 2,300 NAHDB calculation
1817 2.000 Swanton
1825 2,200 Swanton
1875 706 Official
1885 500 Swanton
1900 550 200 250 100 NAHDB calculation 
1905 432 Census
1910 348 Census
1923 477 US Indian Office
1930 523 Census
1937 592 US Indian Office
1973 891 BIA
1989 2,050 BIA estimate
2000 4,200 1,500 2,000 700 NAHDB calculation
  * Mexico populations not included
Kickapoo Sites:
Circle of Learning at Kickapoo
Elder Brings Pride to Kickapoo
Grand Village of the Kickapoo Parks
Kickapoo Archives
Kickapoo Authors
Kickapoo Diorama
Kickapoo History
Kickapoo Indian Caverns
Kickapoo Indian Caverns
Kickapoo Indian History
Kickapoo Indian Medicine Company
Kickapoo Indians
Kickapoo Indian Tribe
Kickapoo Indian Tribe History
Kickapoo Indian Tribe of Brown County
Kickapoo Indian Victorian Trade Cards
Kickapoo Language
Kickapoo Languages
Kickapoo Linguistic Lineage
Kickapoo Nation Reservation (Kiikaapoaki)
Kickapoo Nation School
Kickapoo Titles in Okahoma
Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas
Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas Constitution
Kickapoo Treaty
No-ko-aht's Talk
Organizing for Justice on the Border
Vallejo, Rudy, Eagle Dancer

Last updated 11/07/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press