Keresan Pueblos

Acoma Gallery of Dave Pease Photographs (Click on picture to enlarge)
Acoma Pueblo
Acoma Dog and Ladder
Acoma Balcony
Acoma Wall


Languages: Keres Western Keres (Acoma & Laguna) and Eastern Keres (All others)
Family: Keres
Stock: Keres
Phylum: Keres
Macro-Culture: Southwestern
      The Keres were a sedentary agricultural culture of the greater Pueblo culture. Their villages were along the Rio Grande in north central New Mexico between Rio de los Frijoles and Rio Jemez, and on Rio Jemez from the stream of the Pueblo Zia to its mouth.
     They were early victims of the Spanish conquest, and preyed upon by the Apaches, Navajos, Comanches, and Utes. They speak an isolated language, apparently unrelated to any other (Sapir 1929, Voegelin and Voegelin 1966), though Greenberg (1987) places them in a broad phylum which includes Algonquians, Siouans, and Mosans.
Aboriginal Locations
Eastern or Queres Group:  Cochiti-San Felipe (Cochiti, Haatze, Hanut, Kuapa, @ Potrero de las Vacas, San Felipe, @ Tyuonyi); Santa Ana (Santa Ana); Santo Domingo (Gipuy, Huashpatzena, @ Potrero de la Cañada Quemada, Santo Domingo); Zia (Kakanatzia, Kohasaya)
Western or Sitsime or Kawaiko Group:  Acoma (Acoma, Kashkachuti, Katzimo, Kowina, Kuchtya, Tapitsiama, Tsiama); Laguna
Present Locations
Acoma Pueblo. Acoma
Cochiti Pueblo, Cochiti
Laguna Pueblo, Laguna
San Felipe Pueblo, San Felipe
Santa Ana Pueblo, Santa Ana
Santo Domingo Pueblo, Santo Domingo Pueblo
Zia Pueblo, Zia Pueblo
Year History
1528 Known to Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca
1540 Coronado conquest
1583 Visited by Espejo
1590 Gaspar Castaño de Sosa conquered Pecos, went westward to Keresan but was arrested at Santo Domingo by New Spain troop and disgraced
1598 Juan de Oñate arrived, forced Pueblo vassalage to Spain, colonized; Acoma joined Tiwa and Tompiro in rebellion, villages destroyed, 500 enslaved, later escaped
1607 Oñate removed from governorship
1609 Gov. Pedro de Peralta arrived, founded Santa Fe, built palace with Pueblo labor, disregarded Indian protection laws
1628 Many churches built, friars added, native religion banned
1640 Severe drought for several years, thousands of Pueblos died
1663 Severe drought and famine for six years
1680 Pueblo Rebellion led by San Juan Tewa Popé, 400 Spaniards died in siege of Santa Fe, 50 fled to El Paso
1691 Cochiti burned in failed reconquest try
1693 Successful reconquest
1699 Laguna pueblo founded
1720 Trading fairs began with nomadic tribes
1777 Gov. Juan Bautista de Anza led peace pact between Pueblos and nomads except Apache
1821 Mexican Independence
1837 Small tax revolt quelled
1846 Mexican-American War
1880 Nomadic tribes defeated by Pueblo military arm
1913 Pueblo land claims recognized
1969 Kiowa N. Scott Momaday received Pulitzer Prize for House Made of Dawn, a novel about a Laguna Pueblo
Year Population Source
1630 4,000 Fray Alonzo de Benavides
1680 3,050 Fray Augustín de Vetancurt
1700 3,000 NAHDB calculation
1706 3,190 Fray Juan Alvarez
1752 2,863 New Mexico census
1789 3,337 Gov. Fernando de la Concha census
1797 4,025 Fray Francisco de Hezio census
1800 4,000 NAHDB calculation
1810 4,103 New Mexico census
1821 3,298 Fr. Pedro Rubin de Celis
1860 2,676 Dozier
1900 4,249 Dozier
1900 4,250 NAHDB calculation
1910 4,27 Census
1930 5,396 Dozier
1937 5,781 US Indian Office
1940 6,576 Dozier
1948 7,283 Dozier
1964 12,032 Dozier
1973 12,220 BIA
1981 16,745 BIA
1989 19,900 NAHDB estimate using BIA data
2000 22,000 NAHDB projection
Other speakers of the same language:
Keresan Pueblo links:
Acoma Authors
Acoma History
Acoma History Brief
Acoma Indian Woman
Acoma/Laguna Pottery
Acoma Origin Myth
Acoma Pueblo
Acoma Pueblo  Video
Acoma Pueblo (Sky City)
Acoma Pueblo Museum
Acoma Pueblo Pottery
Acoma Pueblo Storage Container
Acoma "Sky City"
Acoma Traditional Pottery
Acoma Walls
Allen, Paula Gunn
Casino Hollywood
Cochiti Indian Tribe History
Cochiti Pueblo
Cochiti Pueblo
Cochiti Pueblo Pottery
Cochiti Pueblo Pottery and Drums
Cochiti Pueblo Star Story
Eastern Keres
Eastern Keres Linguistic Lineage
Francis, Lee
Keresan Language
Keresan Pueblo Indians
Keres Pueblo Language
Laguna Pottery
Laguna Pueblo
Laguna Pueblo
Laguna Pueblo
Laguna Pueblo Authors
Laguna Pueblo Constitution
Laguna Pueblo Pottery
Laguna Pueblo Pottery
Lewis, Lucy
Lewis, Lucy
Lewis, Lucy
Lewis, Lucy
Lewis, Lucy
Pueblo Culture and Ethnobotany
Pueblo Pottery Classroom
San Felipe Pueblo,_New_Mexico
San Felipe Pueblo Pottery
Santa Ana Pueblo
Santa Ana Pueblo
Santa Ana Pueblo Pottery
Santa Ana Pueblo Pottery
Santo Domingo Art Items
Santo Domingo Pottery
Santo Domingo Pottery
Santo Domingo Pueblo
Santo Domingo Pueblo,_New_Mexico
Santo Domingo Pueblo Authors
Silko, Leslie Marmon
Silko, Leslie Marmon
Sky City Casino
Western Keres Language
Western Keres Linguistic Lineage
Zia Pueblo
Zia Pottery
Zia Pueblo
Zia Pueblo
Zia Pueblo
Zia Pueblo
Zia Pueblo Pottery
Zia Pueblo Pottery
Zia Pueblo Sun Symbol

Last updated 11/07/08   Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press