Jumano Tribes



Ethnie:                 HUMANO TRUBES (SUMA, SHUMAN)

Tribe Jumano Apache Jumano Pueblo (Suma) Plains Jumano
Language Eastern Apachean Southern Tiwa Wichita
Family Apachean Tiwa Wichita
Stock Athapaskan Kiowa-Tanoa Northern Caddoan
Phylum Na-Dene Kiowa-Tanoa Caddoan
      The Jumano were no more than an identity, failing to be a single tribe, language group, or culture.  The data presented herein is quite disputable.  They followed the fortunes of the various cultures to which they attached or identified.  Some Jumano Pueblos survived in Mexico while some surely absorbed into other U. S. Pueblo cultures.  The Plains Jumano have ancestors today among the Wichita and Kiowa in Oklahoma.  Some Jumano Apache absorbed into others Apachean tribes while other have maintained their cultural identity in Texas.
Aboriginal Divisions
Jumano Apache, Jumano Pueblo, Plains Jumano
Present Locations
MX Ancestors absorbed into other cultures including Casas Grandes, Chihuahua
TX  Jumano Apache Tribe, Tedford
Year History
1535 Some Jumano may have been visited by Cabeza de Vaca
1582 Espejo visited village of La Junta Pueblo frequented by Plains Jumano
1598 Onate received oaths of loyalty from Jumano Pueblos; Onate encountered Jumano Whichitas on Arkansas River near Quivira
1627 Benevides began missionizing Jumano Pueblos building the church of San Isidro
1629 Mission established
1659 Some Pueblo Jumanon at San Lorenzo
1664 Mission established at Casas Grandes in Chihuahua for southern branch of Pueblo Jumanos, Jumano Apaches joined Apaches in raids against sedentary tribes, northern Pueblo Jumanos and Apache Jumanos nearly destroyed by Apache
1670 Jumano Pueblos moved from Salinas pueblos to region of Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe mission in Rio Grande south f present El Paso due to famine and conflicts with Apaches
1680 Participated in Pueblo Revolt
1850 Some Plains Jumano had joined Kiowa, others had joined Wichita
Year Population NM TX Source
1690 10,000 Epejo population estimate including Mexican elements which comprised most of tribes
1700 500 200 300 NAHDB calculation
1755 500 Swanton (50 families)
1765 210 Swanton (21 families)
1800 100 50 50 NAHDB calculation
1900 50 - 50 NAHDB calculation
2000 300 NAHDB calculation
2004 300 - 300
Jumano Sites:
Big Bend National Park
Big Bend National Park Archeology
Iternerary of Juan Domingues de Mendoza
Hueco Tanks
Jumano and Caddo Indians
Jumano and the Lady in Blue
Jumano Apaches in Texas Seek Federal Recognition
Jumano Culture
Jumano Indians
Jumano Indians
Jumano Indians
Jumano Indians of Texas
Life on the Margin
Marfa, Texas History
Mary of Agreda
Mystery Still Surrounds Jumano Apache Tribe
Presidio, Texas History
Suma Indians
Texas Muslims Donate Bus for Native Americans

Last updated 03/14/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press