Jicarilla Apache



Language: Eastern Apachean
Family: Apachean
Stock: Athapaskan
Phylum: Na-Dene
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers 812        1990 Census
     Most Apacheans began to arrive in the southwest from Canada late in the 15th century.  They represent a dialectic group which was comprised of several tribes.  These first Apaches were nomadic predatory bands which preyed on the sedentary peoples of the area.  The earliest locations of the Jicarilla Apache were in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, but they ranged into Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas as nomadic Southern Plains tribes.  
Aboriginal Subdivisions
NM (4)
Present Locations
NM  Jicarilla Reservation, Dulce
Year History
1540 Met by Coronado, called "Querechos," in west Texas and New Mexico
1733 Mission established for Jicarilla near Taos, but soon revolted
1853 Convinced by New Mexico governor to settle on Rio Puerco but soon went to war over failure to sign treaty
1854 Defeated by US troops
1870 Moved to Maxwell Grant in northwest New Mexico, sale of land forced their removal
1874 Most moved to Tierra Amarilla
1878 Defied Congress, annuities suspended, resorted to thieving 
1880 Moved to reservation on Navajo River
1883 Moved to Fort Stanton
1887 Moved to reservation at Tierra Amarilla where land was granted in severalty
Year Population Source
1700 800 NAHDB calculation
1800 800 NAHDB calculation
1845 800 Mooney estimate
1900 800 NAHDB calculation
1905 795 Swanton
1910 694 Census
1923 608 US Indian Office
1937 714 US Indian Office 
1973 1,963 BIA
1981 2,269 BIA
1989 2,920 BIA
2000 3,000 NAHDB calculation
2002 3,000 Tribe
Other speakers of the same language:
Kiowa Apache, Mescalero Apache
Jicarilla Apache Sites:
Apache Girl's Puberty Ceremony  Video
Apache Indian Language
Inde Apache Literature
Jicarilla Game and Fish
Jicarilla Photo
Jicarilla Apache
Jicarilla Apache Authors
Jicarilla Apache Basket
Jicarilla Apache Indians
Jicarilla Apache Language Summer Day Camp
Jicarilla Apache Myths
Jicarilla Apache Nation
Jicarilla Apache Pottery
Jicarilla Apache Protocols
Jicarilla Apache Texts
Jicarilla Apache Tinde
Jicarilla Indian Cowboy
Jicarilla Indian Maiden
Jicarilla Indians
Jicarilla Language
Jicarilla Language
Jicarilla Linguistic Lineage
License to Teach
Lone Tree Lodge (Jicarilla) 1904
Vanishing Indian Types

Last updated 11/07/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press