Jemez Pueblos



Language: Jemez
Family: Towa
Stock: Kiowa-Towa
Phylum: Kiowa Tamoan
Macro-Culture: Southwestern
Speakers 1,301   1990 Census
      The Jemez Pueblos were a sedentary agricultural culture of the greater Pueblo culture.  The present Jemez Pueblo is on the north bank of the Jemez River about 20 miles northwest of Bernaalillo.  Large numbers died as a result of droughts.  They were early victims of the Spanish conquest and were preyed upon by the Navajos, Apaches, Comanches, and Utes, ultimately consolidating into one village.  They were joined by Pecos Pueblo refugees in 1838.
Aboriginal Locations
NM  8 or more villages
Present Locations
NM   Jemez Pueblo, Jemez
Year History
1528 Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca was told of rich agricultural pueblos north of Texas along the Rio Grande
1539 After viewing a Zuni pueblo from an distance, Fray Marcos de Niza started the Seven Cities of Cibola rumor
1540 Coronado set out to conquer Cibola with 300 men, 1,000 horses, 6 friars
1573 Royal Ordinance of King Phillip II protected Indians from conquest
1581 Father Augustin Rodriquez led a party of nine up the Rio Grande
1582 Antonio de Espejo  expedition to rescue friars prospected westward after learning of their death
1598 Juan de Onate led 400 soldiers, friars, colonists; forced Pueblos to swear vassalage to Spain, declared the region a Franciscan missionary province which he divided into seven districts
1607 Onate removed from governorship
1609 New governor Pedro de Peralta founded Santa Fe, built palace with Pueblo labor, disregarded protection laws
1622 Tribe missionized, settled in two pueblos, Astailakwa and Patoqua
1628 Numerous churches built, 30 friars added, native religions banned
1640 Severe drought, thousands died
1663 Severe drought for several years, thousands died
1680 Pueblo Revolt against Spanish led by San Juan Tewa Pope, 500 Spanish slaughtered in siege of Santa Fe
1694 Spanish attack under Vargas killed 84, 361 prisoners removed to Santa Fe, reconquest destroyed Patoqua, Jemez reoccupied Gyuiswa
1698 Second revolt, fled to Navajo country; later returned to build Jemez Pueblo
1700 Comanche and Ute raids began
1720 Trade fairs began with nomadic tribes and prosperity resulted
1728 108 died of pestilence
1777 Gov. Juan Bautista de Anza arranged peace between Pueblos and all nomadic tribes except Apache
1782 Jemez Pueblo made a visita of ZIA mission
1821 Mexican Independence, violence fanned by Mexican slaving raids
1823 Capitalizing on disorganized Mexican rule, start of 20 years of slaving and scalping by Navajo, Ute, Apache, and Comanche
1837 Small tax revolt quelled
1838 Joined by Pueblos from upper Rio Pecos
1863 Kit Carson began Navajo roundup, some starvation due to crop failure, continued Mexican slaving
1913 Pueblo land claims recognized
Year U.S. Population Source
1630 3,000 Fray Alonzo de Benevides
1680 5,000 Fray Augustin de Vetancurt
1700 1,000 NAHDB calculation
1706 300 Fray Juan Alvarez
1744 100 Fray Andres Varo
1752 207 New Mexico Census
1760 373 Bishop Pedro Tamaron y Romeral
1789 265 Gov. Fernando de la Concha
1797 272 Fray Francisco de Hezio
1800 250 NAHDB calculation
1806 264 Gov. Alencaster
1810 299 New Mexico census
1821 330 Fr. Jose Pedro Rubin de Celis
1860 650 Dozier
1900 450 Dozier
1900 450 NAHDB calculation
1930 641 Dozier
1937 648 US Indian Office
1940 767 Dozier
1948 883 Dozier
1964 1,566 Dozier
1970 1,765 BIA
1973 1,953 BIA
1981 1,811 BIA estimate
1989 2,378 BIA estimate
2000 3,200 NAHDB calculation
2005 3,400 Whatley
Other speakers of the same language:
Pecos Pueblos
 Jemez Sites:
Bow and Arrow Dance of Jemez
Chinana, Robert, Jewler
Hope (Jemez) 1925 Photo
Jemez and Acoma Art
Jemez Basket / Pottery
Jemez Clown Mask
Jemez Indian Reservation
Jemez Indian Tribe
Jemez Language
Jemez Linguistic Lineage
Jemez Miniature Pottery
Jemez Pottery
Jemez Pottery
Jemez Pottery
Jemez Pottery Vessels
Jemez Pueblo
Jemez Pueblo
Jemez Pueblo
Jemez Pueblo Area
Jemez Pueblo News
Jemez Pueblo Photos
Jemez Pueblo Pottery
Jemez Pueblo Pottery
Jemez Pueblo (Walatowa)
Jemez Seed Pot
Kwastiyukwa Pueblo
Peabody Returns Remains to Pecos Pueblo
Pueblo Culture and Ethnobotany
Pueblo of Jemez
Santa Ana and Jemez River - 1925 Photo
Towa Language (Jemez)
Walatowa Visitor Center
Walatowa Visitor Center
Wall, Adrian

Last updated 11/07/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press