Dialect: Peoria
Language: Miami-Illinois
Family: Central Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers Language extinct
      The Illinois were a sedentary hunter/farmer confederacy of the great Mound Builder Culture which separated late from the Miami.  They lived along the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers and as far south as northeastern Arkansas.  They fought with most of their neighbors and were ultimately destroyed in 1769 by a large joint force of their enemies.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
AR    Michigamea
IL      Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Tamaroa
IA      Moingwena, Peoria
MO    Tamaroa
Present Locations
OK  Peoria Indian Tribe, Miami
Year History
1634 Battle with Winnebago
1650 Beaver Wars with Iroquois and then later wars with the Fox
1667 Met French priest Allouez at La Pointe
1673 Visited by Marquette
1682 Visited by LaSalle, at war with neighbors and Iroquois
1700 Soon consolidated in Illinois
1725 Chief Mamantouensa traveled to France
1769 Ottawa chief Pontiac murdered by Kaskaskia Indian, retaliation by joint force of Fox, Sac, Chippewa, Potawatomi, Ottawa, and Kickapoo; lost almost all of territory
1802 Kaskaskia took heavy losses in war with Shawnee
1832 Removed to Kansas
1867 Moved to northeastern Oklahoma
Year Total Population AR IA IL MO OK Source
1650 8,000 Mooney estimate
1680 6,300 Hennipen estimate
1700 5,000 1,100 800 3,000 400 NAHDB calculation
1750 2,000 Swanton
1778 380 Swanton
1800 300 Swanton
1800 300 300 NAHDB calculation
1885 149 Swanton
1900 200 200 NAHDB calculation 
1905 195 Swanton
1910 128 Census
1989 424 BIA estimate
1990 1,600 Factmonster
2000 2,000 2,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Illinois Sites:
Ancient Cahokia
Ancient Illinois Village ...
Archeology of Illinois
Buffalo Run Casino
Cahokia Indian Tribe History
Cahokia Mounds
Cahokia Mounds
Cahokia Mounds
Cahokia Mounds:  Largest Archeological Site in America
Cahokia Mounds SHP
Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site
Cahokia Thatched Hut
DeSoto's Midwest Trails
French Explore Peoria Tribe Territory
French in Illinois
Illini Confederacy
Illini Confederation:  Lords of the Mississippi Valley
Illini Decline
Illiniwek of Southern Illinois
Illinois Authors
Illinois Confederacy
Illinois History
Illinois Indian History
Illinois Indians
Illinois Indians
Illinois Indian Tribe History
Illinois Indian Tribes
Illinois-Miami Language
Illinois Today
Indian Mounds Mystify Excavators,2704,65170,00.html
Indian Treaty Boundary Lines of Illinois
Kaskaskia Indians
Kaskaskia Indians
Kaskaskia Indian Tribe History
Kaskaskia Treaty
Kaskaskia Tribal Descendents
Legend of the Piasa
Lost City of Cahokia
Miami-Illinois Language
Miami-Illinois Linguistic Lineage
Michigamea Indian Tribe
Old Kaskaskia Days and Ways
Peoria Indians
Peoria Indian Tribe History
Peoria Treaty
Peoria Treaty
Peoria Tribe
Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma
Peoria Tribe v. United States
Prairie Nations
St. Louis Indian History
Treaty with the Kaskaskia 1803
Waterman Site

Last updated 04/04/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press