Ethnie: HOPI
Language: Hopi
Family: Hopi
Stock: Uto-Aztecan
Phylum: Azrec-Tanoan
Macro-Culture: Pueblo
Speakers 5,264 1990 Census
     The Hopi were a sedentary hunter/farmer culture of the greater Pueblo macro-culture.  They were the only Uto-Aztecan component of that macro-culture.  They lived on three mesas in northeastern Arizona, but claimed much of the surrounding territory.  They settled in the area just after A.D. 1000.
     The most important enemies of the Hopi were the predatory Navajos, Apaches, and Utes, all of whom inflicted considerable damage on the Hopi.  They were less affected by Spanish and Mexican rule than the Pueblo cultures to the east.
     The Hopi lost considerable land to and are now landlocked by the Navajo.  Disputes with Navajo  continue to this day over land rights.  The Hopi have successfully retained much of their culture.
Aboriginal Locations
First Mesa:  Awatobi, Kisakovi, Kuchaptuvela, Sichomovi, Walpi;  Second Mesa:  Mishongovi, Shipaulovi, Shongopovi;  Third Mesa:  Oraibi;  Other:  Homolovi
Arizona Present Locations
AZ:  Hopi Reservation, Oraibi
Year History
1150 Oraibi Pueblo established, constantly occupied ever since.  Oldest constantly occupied site in U.S.
1540 Visited by de Tobar and de Padilla, Coronado conquest
1583 Visited by Antonio de Espejo
1598 Visited by Juan de Onate; made to swear vassalage to Spain
1629 Franciscan mission at Awatobi founded
1655 Priest set a Hopi afire for idolatry
1680 Pueblo Revolt; missions destroyed
1681 Accepted Tiwa refugees for 30 to 40 years
1693 Reconquest forced some Tewa to relocated to Hano in Hopi country
1700 Failed attempt to rebuild Awatobi mission; tribe attacked village and killed all males, captured women and children
1701 Tribe attacked by Cubero, several killed
1716 Attacked by Capt. Felix Martinez of Santa Fe
1777 Sever drought; many went to Havasupai until drought over; received Spanish protection against Navajo raid, though many killed
1823 Capitalizing on disorganized Mexican rule, start of 20 years of slaving and scalping by Navajo, Ute, Apache, and Comanche
1834 Party of trappers killed 20 of tribe at Oraibi
1837 Oraibi Pueblo almost entirely wiped out by Navajo
1844 Mexican attack, several killed, others taken as slaves but later freed
1860 Mormon Jacob Hamlin began successful mission
1863 Kit Carson began Navajo roundup, some starvation due to crop failure, continued Mexican slaving
1876 Santa Fe Railroad reached Flafstaff
1882 Reservation established
1891 Spider Woman scared off Calvary trying to impose a survey
1893 Voth Mennonite mission established
1906 Thribal cultural dispute, Hotevilla established on Third Mesa
1974 Navajo Relocation Act passed; Hopi regained considerable territory (Act tied to graft incolving Peabody Coal Mine and mining rights)
1981 BIA issued grazing rights to Navajo on Hopi lands
1985 Broken Rainbow received Academy Award for best documentary, subject:  Navajo Relocation Act
Year U.S. Population Source
1680 2,800 Mooney estimate
1700 2,800 NAHDB calculation
1800 2,300 NAHDB calculation
1860 2,300 Dozier
1890 1,824 Swanton
1897 631 Swanton
1900 600 NAHDB calculation
1910 501 Census
1923 440 US Indian Office
1937 454 US Indian Office
1973 1,133 BIA
1981 1,017 BIA
1989 1,300 BIA Estimate
1990 6,500 Census
2000 10,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Hopi Sites:
Arizona, Hopi and Navajo Tribes
Basic Hopi Basket Styles
Constitution of the Hopi Tribe
Early History of Hopi Pottery
Hopi Alumni are Good Role Models
Hopi and Navajo Tours
Hopi Art
Hopi Arts
Hopi Authors
Hopi Ceremonial Life
Hopi Ceremonial Societies
Hopi Civilization
Hopi Cultural Preservation Office
Hopi Foundation
Hopi Flute Ceremony
Hopi: Heterochronic Patterns
Hopi Indian History
Hopi Indian Legends
Hopi Indian Reservation
Hopi Indians
Hopi Indians
Hopi Indian Tribe, Law and Order Code
Hopi Jewelry
Hopi Kachina Dolls
Hopi Kachina Dolls
Hopi Kachina Dolls
Hopi Kachinas
Hopi Kachinas
Hopi Kachinas
Hopi Katsinas
Hopi Katsina Dolls
Hopi Language
Hopi Language
Hopi Language and Communication Student Project
Hopi Language Project
Hopi Linguistic Lineage
Hopi Mesas and Navajo Cultural Journeys
Hopi Mineral Development Plans
Hopi Origin Myth
Hopi Overlay Jewelry
Hopi People
Hopi Photographs
Hopi Pottery
Hopi Pottery
Hopi Pottery
Hopi Pottery, History
Hopi Letter Pronunciation
Hopi Religion
Hopi Reservation
Hopi - the Struggle for Tomorrow
Hopi Tribe
Hopi Tribe
Hopi Tribe Asserts Jurisdiction ...
Hopi Tribe, Hopi Reservation
Hopi Tribe Pulls the Plug ...
Hopi Woman is First Native American on AZ Regents Board
How Maasaw and the People of Oraibi
Kachina Carvings
Kachina Doll
Origins of the Clans
Pueblo Culture and Ethnobotany
Reservation, The
Taking Control of Hopi Resources ...
Tales of a Tongue
Visiting the Three Mesas of the Hopi Reservation
Wedding Traditions
Woman Spirit

Last updated 04/02/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press