Language: Delta-California Yuman
Family: Yuman
Stock: Esselen-Yuman
Phylum: Hokan
Macro-Culture: Colorado River
Speakers 0
     The Halykwamai were a sedentary hunter/farmer tribe. They were located along the Colorado River just below the Gila.  They ultimately confederated into the Cocopa, possibly due to conflicts with River Yumans.
Aboriginal Locations
SN  4 villages, AZ 1 village
Arizona Present Locations
Probably confederated into the Cocopa in AZ
Year History
1540 Met by Hernando de Alarcon, called "Quicama"
1604 Found by Onate between the mouth of the Gila and above the Cocopa
1776 Met by Francisco Garces 
17XX Probably joined the Cocopa
Year U.S. Population Source
1680 2,000 Mooney estimate
1700 2,000 NAHDB calculation
1775 2,000 Garces estimate
1800 0 NAHDB calculation
1900 0 NAHDB calculation
2000 0 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Cocopa, Diegueno (Kumeyaay), Kamia, Kohuana
Halykwamai Sites:
Cocopa Language
Cocopa Linguistic Lineage
Colorado River Culture and Ethnobotany
Heavily Used Colorado River ...
Planners Seek Water to Revive Mexico's Colorado River Delta

Last updated 03/18/08  Copyright 2008 by Four Directions Press