Creek Confederacy



Language: Muskogee
Family: Muskogee
Stock: Muskogee
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers None
       The Creek Confederacy formed with the uniting of the Muskhogee and Guale after the Yamasee Wars. Some of the surviving Yamasee eventually joined them as well. They became a large hunter/farmer nation/confederacy dominated by the Muskhogee. They were constantly at war with neighboring tribes and Whites as well. They were early divided geographically into two parts, the Upper Creek on the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers, and the Lower Creeks (not to be confused with the Seminole) on the Chatahoochee and Ocmulgee.
      Some Natchez joined the confederacy after being routed by the French and Choctaw. Small groups of Apalachee, Tamathli, and Coushatta joined as a result of pressure from Whites and other tribes. The Tawasa, Apalachicola, Okmulgee, Hitchiti, Muklasa, and Osochi accompanied the Creeks to Indian Territory. The Chiaha joined the confederacy in Oklahoma after the Civil War.
      The Creeks helped the British in both the French and Indian War (1754) and the American Revolution (1776). They fought the United States in the Creek-American War (1813). Most were relocated to the Indian Territory (Oklahoma), though many remain in their aboriginal territories.
Aboriginal Locations: Subdivisions (Villages)
Confederacy formed after European arrival
Present Locations
AL    Machis Lower Alabama Creek Tribe, New Brockton
         Porch Band of Creek Indians, Atmore
         Principal Creek Indian Nation East of the Mississippi, Florala
FL    Creeks East of the Mississippi, Molino
         Florida Tribe of Eastern Creek Indians, Bruce
GA   Lower Muskhogee Creek Tribe East of the Mississippi, Whigham
OK   Creek Tribe, Okmulgee
Year History
1703 Muskhogee allied with British in Apalachee War
1715 South Carolina census; Guale joined 6,522 with Muskhogee to form Creek Confederacy; Creeks began killing traders; Cherokee mass murder of Creek mission at Tugalo
1733 Two year Creek-Choctaw war
1754 Helped British in French and Indian War
1763 Ceded eastern lands
1766 Creek-Choctaw war
1768 Chickasaw sided with Choctaw in war against Creek
1776 Helped British in Revolutionary War
1813 Creek-American War, killed 400 Settlers at Fort Mims GA
1814 Totally defeated at Horseshoe Bend, considerable losses, many joined Seminole
1821 Treaty of Indian Springs ceded 5 million acres between Chatahoochie and Flint Rivers
1825 Treaty ceded lands
1830 Removal Act signed by Andrew Jackson
1838 Relocation to Oklahoma
1904 Creek Nation divided up between 49 townships with capital in Okmulgee
1906 Oklahoma statehood
Year Total Pop. AL GA OK Source
1700 0       NAHDB calculation
1715 6,522         South Carolina census:  Guale and Muskogee confederated
1800 10,000 9,300 700   NAHDB calculation
1857 15,000         Census
1900 13,000 700   12,300 NAHDB calculation 
1919 12,000         Official
1923 11,952         US Indian Office
1930 9,038         Census
1973 15,480         BIA statistics
1981 37,679         BIA
1989 57,704         BIA estimate
2000 71,000         Census
2000 71,000 1,000   70,000 NAHDB calculation 
Analysis of Confederation
Confederating Ethnie Language Year Estimated Contributed Population
Muskogee Muskogee 1715 6,500
Guale Muskogee 1715 250
Tuskegee Alabaman 1715 200
Shawnee Shawnee 1715 ?
Cusabo Cusabo 1720 500
Yamasee Mikasuki 1730 300
Natchez Natchez 1731 500
Coushatta Alabaman 1795 100
Tamathli Mikasuki 1799 50
Apalachee Apalachean 1803 50
Muskogee Muskogee 1814  To Seminole  -3,000
Tawasa Timucuan 1832 300
Apalachicola Mikasuki 1836 200
Okmulgee Mikasuki 1836 200
Hitchiti Mikasuki 1838 350
Muklasa Alabaman 1838 100
Osochi Timucuan 1838 200
Chiaha Mikasuki 1870 500
Other speakers of the same language:
Guale, Muskhogee, Seminole
Creek Confederacy Sites:
1882 Creek (Muskogee) Nation Census
A Town of the Creek Nation - 1790
Coosaponakeesa (Mary Musgrove) - Creek
Creation Myths and Legends of the Creek Indians
Creek Authors
Creek Census 1860
Creek Council House
Creek Genealogy - Muscogee Nation
Creek Indian
Creek Indian Bibliography
Creek Indian History Program
Creek Indian Land Grant
Creek Indians
Creek Indians
Creek Indians
Creek Indians of Georgia
Creek Indian Tribe
Creek Indian Tribe
Creek Indian Tribes
Creek Indian Village
Creek Indian War
Creek Indian War of Lawrenceville
Creek Indian Wars
Creek Language Archive
Creek/Muscogee, Rabbit Plays Tug-of-War
Creek Nation
Creek Nation
Creek Nation 1900 Census
Creek Nation 4H
Creek Nation Casino
Creek Nation Council House
Creek Nation Travel Plaza
Creek People
Creek People
Creek (people)
Creek Potter
Creek Treaties Related to Georgia
Creeks:  War of 1812
Creek War
Creek War 1813-1814
Creek War 1813-1814
Dana Tiger, Paintings of Creek Indians
Eastern Indian Wars
Fus Fixico Letters ...
History of the Creek Indians in Georgia
Lesson of a Creek Chief's Visit to King George
Lower Muscogee Creek Indians
Muscogee, A Study of the Creek Indians
Muscogee (Creek) Nation Constitution
Muscogee (Creek) Nation of Oklahoma
Muscogee (Creek) Nation - Tribal History
Muscogee Creek Removal
Muscogee Indian Chiefs and History
Muscogee Nation of Florida
Muskogee (Creek) Literature
Muskogee Language (Creek)
Perdido Bay Tribe
Perryman Creek Indian Clearing House
Porch Creek Indian Bingo Palace
Porch Creek Tribe Authors
Saga of the Creek Nation
Sampson, Will
Treaty with the Creek Nation - 1866
War of 1812 in Alabama and Creek War ...

Last updated 10/31/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press