Language: Halkomelem
Family: Central Salish
Stock: Salish
Phylum: Mosan
Macro-Culture: Northwest Coast
Speakers 200   (2002 Poser)  
        The Cowichan were a large sedentary coastal maritime nation that relied heavily on fishing. They were located on the southeast coast of Vancouver Island between Nanoos Bay and Saanich Inlet, and across the strait on the mainland.
Aboriginal Locations
BC    Clemclemalats, Comiakin, Hellelt, Kenipsim, Kilpanlus, Koksilah, Kuleets, Lilmalche, Malakut, Penelakut, Quamichan, Siccameen, Somenos, Stalo, Tateke, Yekolaos
Present Locations
BC Aitchelitz Indian Band, Sardis Peters Indian Band, Hope
  Chehalis Indian Band, Agassiz Popkum Indian Band, Rosedale
  Chemainus Indian Band, Ladysmith Scowlitz Indian Band, Lake Errock
  Coquitlam Indian Band, Port Coquitlam Seabird Island Indian Band, Agassiz
  Cowichan Indian Band, Duncan Shawahlook Indian Band, Hope
  Halalt Indian Band, Chemainus Skowkale Indian Band, Sardis
  Hope Indian Band, Hope Skwah Indian Band, Chilliwack
  Katzie Indian Band, Pitt Meadows Skway Indian Band, Chilliwack
  Kwaw-kwaw-a-pilt Indian Band, Chilliwack Soowahlie Indian Band, Chilliwack
  Lakahahamen Indian Band, Deroche Squiala Indian Band, Chilliwack
  Langley Indian Band, Fort Langley Sumas Indian Band, Abbotsford
  Lyackson Indian Band, Chemainus Tsawwassen Indian Band, Ladner
  Malahat Indian Band, Mill Bay Tzeachten Indian Band, Sardis
  Matsqui Indian Band, Matsqui Union Bar Indian Band, Hope
  Musqueam Indian Band, Vancouver Yaakweakwioose Indian Band, Sardis
  Nanoose Indian Band, Lantzville Yale Indian Band, Hope
  Penelakut Indian Band, Chemainus  
Year History
1787 Strait of Juan de Fuca discovered by Charles Barkley
1790 Manual Quimper explored both shores of strait
1792 Area charted by Capt. George Vancouver
1827 Fort Langley founded
1835 Beginning of 30 year terror reign of Cowichan renegade Tzouhalem
1843 Victoria founded
1858 Fraser River gold rush
1870 Smallpox epidemic
1884 Canadian Pacific Railroad completed; potlatch banned in British Columbia
1951 Potlatch ban repealed
Year BC Population   Source
1700 5,500   NAHDB calculation
1780 5,500   Mooney estimate
1800 5,500   NAHDB calculation
1900 1,300   NAHDB calculation
1907 1,298   Census
2000 8,000   NAHDB calculation
2005 8,347   Indian Life Online
Other speakers of the same language:
Cowichan Tribe Sites:
Aboriginal Tours, Native Heritage and Culture
Cowichan Bay, 1850 - Now
Cowichan Indian Agency Reserves
Cowichan Indian Gathering Tules
Cowichan Photo Gallery
First Nations History in the Gulf Islands
Halkomelem:  Cowichan Language
Halkomelem Language
Halkomelem Language
Hlakomelem Linguistic Lineage
Indian Band Members Declare Independence
Joe Jack - Coast Salish Artist
Lake Cowichan's History
Legends of the Cowichan
Mount Tzouhalem
Photo Galley
Quw'utsun' Cultural & Conference Center
Tait Indians
Transformation Pole Blessed

Last updated 10/31/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press