Language: Central Numic
Family: Numic
Stock: Uto-Aztecan
Phylum: Aztec-Tanoan
Macro-Culture: Great Basin
Speakers 854 in US      1990 Census
     The Comanche were a nomadic predatory tribe.  They separated late from the Northern Shoshoni and are of the same linguistic descent.  They were located in southeastern Wyoming prior to 1700 and soon migrated to northeastern Colorado and then Kansas.  After two decades, they joined the Kiowa in Oklahoma before filtering together to north Texas.
     The Comanche became closely allied with the Kiowa and their annex, the Kiowa Apache.  They acquired horses about A.D. 1700 and guns soon thereafter.  The confederacy ranged west into New Mexico, south into Mexico, and as far north as the Arkansas River to prey on sedentary peoples.
     The tribes destroyed numerous Pueblo villages in New Mexico.  The Texas Rangers were formed primarily to fight the Comanche.  The tribes were, however, finally defeated by the US Army.  They were forced to cede their Texas territories and were settled in Oklahoma.
Aboriginal Locations
WY Subdivisions:  11 to 17 bands
Present Locations
OK  Comanche Tribe, Anadarko
Year History
1650 Approximate arrival of the Arapaho and Blackfeet onto the Northern Plains, conflicts began
1700 Probably separated form the Northern Shoshoni in the area of western Wyoming, had obtained horses, removed to northeastern Colorado
1719 Placed in northwest Kansas, attacked by Apaches but defeated them, at war with Spanish and Americans
1720 Began participating in Pueblo trade fairs
1782 Raids caused the abandonment of Pecos Pueblos
1816 Smallpox epidemic
1823 Took up slaving, killed 20-25 Osage
1835 Texas Ranger formed to fight Comanche
1836 War party of 100 Comanche, Caddo, Kiowa, and Wichita attacked with Fort Parker, probably after having been swindled on a horse deal, killed 5 and captured 5 including 9 year old Cynthia Ann Parker, future mother of Quanah Parker
1838 Tricked by Texas Rangers, 35 Comanche killed
1849 Cholera epidemic
1854 Reservation established on Brazos River for Comanche and Kiowa
1858 Texas Rangers killed 76 including Chief Iron Jacket at Canadian River Valley; US Army with aid of Wichita killed 58 of tribe at Rush Springs
1859 Comanche and Kiowa relocated to Oklahoma
1860 Cynthia Ann Parker taken back by Whites against her will
1862 Smallpox epidemic
1864 Kit Carson attacked Kiowa and Comanche at Adobe Walls and destroyed winter stores
1865 Medicine Lodge Treaty set aside reservation fro Kiowa and Comanche including Oklahoma land and all of Texas panhandle, 39 million acres
1867 All of Texas land and part of Oklahoma land in second Medicine Lodge Treaty, retained 2.9 million acres
1871 Comanche and Kiowa attacked a n Army ambulance train killing 10
1872 4th Cavalry killed 30, captured 124 at McClellan Creek, MacKenzie attack at Palo Duro Canyon, killed 8, captured 1,500 horses
1874 Settled on land after the last outbreak of the Southern Plains tribes at Adobe Walls, Red River War
1875 Quanah Parker became chief of teh Comanche and Kiowa and became a federal judge
1892 Measles epidemic
1903 Quanah, Acme, and Pacific Railroad founded
Year Total Population WY KA TX OK Source
1700 7,000 7,000 NAHDB calculation
1800 7,000 7,000 NAHDB calculation
1900 1,400 1.400 NAHDB calculation
1904 1,400 Census
1910 1,171 Census
1923 1,697 US Indian Office
1937 2,213 U. S. Indian Office
1981 3,597 BIA
1989 4,718 BIA estimate
2000 7,000 7,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
CA Koso, ID, MT, UT, WY, Northern Shoshoni ID,WY Western Shoshoni, 
Comanche Sites
Comanche Authors
Comanche Code Talker ...
Comanche Code Talkers
Comanche Constitution
Comanche History
Comanche Indian Legend - Shooting the Red Eagle
Comanche Indian Timeline
Comanche Indian Tribe
Comanche Indians
Comanche Indian Reservation
Comanche Indians
Comanche Indians
Comanche Indian Tribe
Comanche Indian Tribe
Comanche Indian Tribe Constitution
Comanche Language
Comanche Language
Comanche Language
Comanche Language and Cultural Preservation Committee
Comanche Language Kept Alive
Comanche Linguistic Lineage
Comanche Lodge
Comanche Nation
Comanche Moccasins
Comanche Patriot Tries to Save White Man
Comanche People
Comanche Vocabulary
Forward to "The Last Comanche Chief"
Kiowa, Comanche, Apache Lands
Kiowa/Comanche Reservation Historical Background
Parker, Cynthia Ann
Parker, Cynthia Ann
Parker, Cynthia Ann, Comanche (by adoption)
Parker, Quanah
Parker, Quanah
Parker, Quanah
Tonips, Comanche/Kiowa Indian Artist

Last updated 10/27/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press