Language: Columbia-Wenatchi
Family: Southern Interior Salish
Stock: Salishan
Phylum: Mosan
Macro-Culture: Northwest Plateau
Speakers 5 or fewer 1999 McDonald
     The Columbia were semi-sedentary hunter/gatherer tribes or the Northwestern Plateau.  They were located on the east side of the Columbia River from Fort Okanogan to Point Eaton.  They traded with the first Whites to arrive, but ultimately had conflicts with and suffered from the later settlers.  They briefly had a reservation called the Columbia Reservation but were finally settled on and confederated into the Colville Reservation.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
WA (3 to 7 bands)
Oregon Present Locations
WA  Colville Reservation, Nespelem
Year History
1781 Smallpox epidemic
1809 David Thompson established Kullyspell House trading post on Lake Pend d'Orielle
1810 David Thompson established Spokane House
1811 David Thompson explored the length of the Columbia River
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers began, conflicts followed
1853 Smallpox epidemic
1855 Major Heller and 100 men routed in battle by a joint force of Yakimas, Columbians, Wanapams, Wallawallas, Palousas, and Spokanes ... "Toppenish Fight"
1870 Located on the east side of the Columbia just below Grand Coulee
1872 Lake Chelan Earthquake, gases emitted, numerous deaths, no child under age 2 survived
1883 Treaty with Chief Moses
Year U.S. Population Source
1700 800 NAHDB calculation
1780 800 Mooney estimate
1800 500 NAHDB calculation
1900 350 NAHDB calculation (Had confederated into Colville) 
1904 355 US Indian Office
1908 299 Swanton
2000 0 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Methow, Wenatchee
Columbia Sites:
Changing Columbia Basin
Chief Moses ...
Columbian Indinan Language
Columbia Treaty with Chief Moses
Columbia-Wenatchi Language
Columbia-Wenatchi Linguistic Lineage
Cultures Clash:  The Land Grab
Ethnobotany of Middle Columbia Native Americans
Lake Chelan and Wapato Point History
Lake Chelan Earthquake of 1872
Natives of the Northwest and their Legacy
Northwest Plateau Culture and Ethnobotany
Oregon Trail
Sinkiuse Indian Tribe
Splawn, Andrew J. ,,,

Last updated 10/27/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press