Clackamas Tribes



Language: Upper Chinookan
Family: Chinookan
Stock: Chinookan
Phylum: Penutian
Macro-Culture: Northwestern
Speakers 69    1996 
     The Clackamas Tribes were sedentary, relied heavily on fishing, and were avid traders including the trading of slaves.  The Clackamas were on the south side of the Columbia River from Tongue Point to the Cascades and on the north from the Lewis River to the Cascades.  Chinookan Jargon was the lingua franca (trade language) of the region.  They suffered enormously from the White influx even though they had good relations with the early White traders.
Aboriginal Locations (Villages)
OR Clackamas (?), Clowewalla (3?), Multnomah (10), Watlala (6)
WA Cathlapotle (2)
Oregon Present Locations
OR  Grande Ronde Reservation, Grande Ronde  (Clackamas, Clowewalla, Multnomah)
OR  Warm Springs Reservation,  Warm Springs (Watlala)
WA  Yakima Reservation, Toppenish (Cathlapotle)
Year History
1792 Visited by Robert Gray and John Boit, and later by Capt. George Vancouverr
1805 Visited by Lewis and Clark who wintered at Fort Clatsop near present Astoria
1811 Astoria founded; David Thompson explored the length of the Columbia River
1824 Smallpox epidemic
1829 Smallpox epidemic (combined with earlier epidemic reduced population 80%)
1830 Malaria epidemic
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers, conflicts began
1847 Measles epidemic
1855 Yakima Reservation created
1856 Oregon Grande Ronde Reservation established
1956 Grande Ronde Reservation terminated
1974 Confederated Tribes of Grande Ronde established 
2001 BIA recognized Chinook Nation of Washington
Year U.S. Population OR WA Source
1700 11,500 10,200 1,300 NAHDB calculation
1780 11,500 Mooney estimate
Cathlapotle   1,300
Clackamas    2,500
Clowewalla      900
Multnomah    3,600
Watlala          3,200
1800 9,000 8,100 900 NAHDB calculation
1806 Lewis and Clark
Cathlapotle       900
Clackamas     1,800
Clowewalla       650
Multnomah            ?
Watlala          2,800
1900 500 500 0 NAHDB calculation (Had confederated into other tribes)
2000 2,000 2,0000 0 NAHDB calculation
2001 2,000     Upon federal recognition
Other speakers of the same language:
Clackamas Tribes Sites:
Buried Treasure:  Archeologists ...
Capitalizing the Chinook
Cathlapotle Plank House Pole Raising Ceremony
Chief of the Multnomah Tribe
Chinook  Student Project
Chinook Artifacts Found
Chinook Authors
Chinook Book
Chinook Dictionary, Catechism, Prayers, and Hymns
Chinook Indian
Chinook Indian Hat
Chinook Indian Jargon
Chinook Indians
Chinook Indians
Chinook Jargon
Chinook Jargon
Chinook Jargon
Chinook Jargon and How to Use It
Chinook Language
Chinook Linguistic Lineage
Chinook Literature
Chinook Literature
Chinook Nation
Chinook Native Americans  Student Project
Chinook People
Chinook Rudiments
Chinook Texts
Chinook Tribe  Student Project
Chinook Tribes
Chinook Wawa Language
Clackamas People
Coyote and Multnomah Falls
Dictionary of Chinook Jargon
Dictionary of Chinook Jargon
First People of Clackamas County
Legend of Multnomah Falls
Legend of the Chinook Indians
Legends of Vancouver
Lewis and Clark Bicentennial
Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Mural
Lewis and Clark:  Chinook on the Columbia
Lower Chinookan Language
Lower Columbia River Indains
Northwest:  Chinookan Culture and Ethnobotany
Once Dying Chinook Language ...
Potlatch of the Northwest Coast
She Who Watches
Tenas Wawa - Chinook Jargon
Upper Chinookan
US Recognizes Chinook Tribe
Watlala Indian Tribe

Last updated 10/22/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press