Language: Cheyenne
Family: Plains Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers 1,721   1990 Census
      The Cheyenne were sedentary hunter/farmers of southwestern Minnesota, ranging into South Dakota.  As a result of pressure created by the earlier Beaver Wars, they moved several times while remaining hunter/farmers.  By 1832, they had absorbed their close relatives, the Sutaio, and moved out onto the plains to become nomadic hunter/gatherers, following the great buffalo herds, upon which they relied upon for subsistence.
      The Cheyenne ultimately allied with the Sioux, and more closely with the Arapaho with whom they ultimately fissioned into northern and southern divisions.  The Southern Cheyenne under Black Kettle suffered two devastating massacres, at Sand Creek by Chivington and at the Washita River by Custer.  The Northern Cheyenne fought with Crazy Horse's Sioux to defeat Custer at he Little Big Horn.
Aboriginal Locations
Apparently about the upper drainage of the Mississippi River and/or the shores of Lake Superior
Present Locations
MY   Northern Cheyenne Reservation, Lame Deer
OK   Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, Concho
Year History
1680 Some of tribe visited Fort Crevecoeur being constructed by LaSalle near present Peoria, Illinois
1750 Had acquired horses but remained hunter/farmers along the Cheyenne River in North Dakota
178X Some Cheyenne attacked by Chippewa while men off hunting, villages destroyed, joined other Cheyenne along Missouri
1804 Visited by Lewis and Clark, living in earth lodges along the Missouri River about the border of present North Dakota and South Dakota living as sedentary hunter/farmers and makers of pottery
1824 Beginning of mountain man fur trade era
1832 Deserted farming, Southern Cheyenne removed to near Bents Fort un the upper Arkansas River, Northern Cheyenne moved to range including the North Platte and Yellowstone Rivers
1833 More than 200 killed by Crow in revenge battle
1837 48 Cheyenne warriors killed by Kiowa
1838 Cheyenne and Arapaho attacked Kiowa and Comanche, losses on both sides
1840 Joined old enemies Kiowa against Whites, end of mountain man fur trade era
1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers
1849 Cholera epidemic
1851 First Treaty of Fort Laramie established specific tracts for Plains tribes, formally divided tribe into northern and southern divisions
1853 Southern Cheyenne conducted disastrous raid into Mexico
1854 Killed more than 100 Pawnee
1860 War with Whites
1864 Cheyenne-Arapaho War, Sand Creek Massacre of Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho in Colorado
1867 Medicine Lodge Treaty, Southern Arapaho place on reservation in Oklahoma with Southern Cheyenne; Northern Cheyenne assigned to Montana reservation
1868 Surprise attack by Custer of Southern Cheyenne on Washita River, 100 including Chief Black Kettle killed
1869 Tall Bull's Northern Cheyenne defeated by Gen. Carr's forces
1876 Northern Cheyenne joined Lakota in defeat of Gen Custer on the Little Big Horn
1879 Northern band under Dull Knife colonized with Southern Cheyenne:  made escape north, 75 of tribe, 50 Whites died; 32 killed in second escape from Ft. Robinson, Nebraska
1883 Dull Knife died
1901 Oklahoma land allotted in severalty 
Year U.S. Population MN MT ND OK SD Source
Arrival 3,500 2,100 1,400
1700 3,500 3,500 NAHDB calculation
1780 3,500 Mooney estimate
1800 3,300 1,700 1,600 NAHDB calculation
1900 3,300 1,600 1,700 NAHDB calculation 
1903 3,312 Census
1910 3,248 US Indian Office
1989 5,800 BIA estimate
1989 7,900 Turtle Tracks
1997 6,591 Tribe
2000 11,000
2000 11,000 7,000 4,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Cheyenne Sites:
Army Scout, U. S. Cavalry
Battle of Summit Springs
Black Hills and Cheyenne Chiefs
Black Kettle
Bushyhead, Jerome, Cheyenne Artist
Campbell, Ben Nighthorse
Campbell, Ben Nighthorse
Cheyenne and Arapaho Images
Cheyenne and Arapaho Nation Flag
Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes of Oklahoma
Cheyenne - Arapaho Lands:  Oklahoma Territory
Cheyenne Authors
Cheyenne At the Smithsonian
Cheyenne Chief Tall Bull
Cheyenne Chief Two Moons
Cheyenne Dog Soldiers
Cheyenne History
Cheyenne History Bibliography
Cheyenne Indian
Cheyenne Indian Fact Sheet
Cheyenne Indian History
Cheyenne Indians
Cheyenne Indians History and Ways of Life, Vol. 1
Cheyenne Indians History and Ways of Life, Vol. 2
Cheyenne Indians:  Lewis and Clark Journals
Cheyenne Lands
Cheyenne Language
Cheyenne Language
Cheyenne Language
Cheyenne Language
Cheyenne Language
Cheyenne Language
Cheyenne Language Surviving
Cheyenne Life Today
Cheyenne Linguistic Lineage
Cheyenne Man's Shirt
Cheyenne Society
Cheyenne Stories
Cheyenne Sweat Lodge
Cheyenne Traditional History
Cheyenne Tribe
Cheyenne War
Chief Dull Knife College
Chief Wolf Robe
Col. John M. Chivington
Dull Knife, Northern Cheyenne
Early Life
Fremont's Travels in the Far West
Ghost Dance
Just Speak Your Language
Let's Listen to Cheyenne
Little Wolf, Cheyenne
Northern Arapaho Tribe
Northern Arapaho Tribe
Northern Arapaho Tribe Community Profile
Northern Cheyenne Flag
Northern Cheyenne Territory
Northern Cheyenne Tribe
Northern Cheyenne Tribe Community Profile
Northern Cheyenne v. Southern Cheyenne Dialects
Oregon Trail
Red River War
Sand Creek Massacre
Sand Creek Massacre Site
Sand Creek Massacre Site Project
Washita Battlefield National Historic Site
Washita:  Genocide of the Great Plains

Last updated 10/07/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press