Language: Caddo
Family Caddo
Stock: Gulf Caddo
Phylum: Caddo
Macro-Culture: Texas
Speakers 141   1990 Census
       The ancestors of the Kadohadacho were the great mound cultures of the region west of the southern stretches of the Mississippi River.  They were advanced hunter//farmers when first met by the Spanish.  They suffered greatly from White introduced diseases and violence.  Ultimately, all of the Caddoan speaking tribes confederated into the Caddo in Oklahoma.  Only about 25% of the surviving tribe reside on tribal lands in Oklahoma.  Most ranged across the country as a result of the Great Depression and World War II.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions, #of villages)
KA, OK, TX  (Cahininnio, Kahohadacho, Nanatsoho, Upper Nasoni)
Present Locations
OK   Caddo Tribe, Anadarko
Year History
1542 Territories traversed by Luis de Moscoso who had assumed command of Spanish soldiers after the death of de Soto
1687 Visited by men from La Salle's fort after the murder of La Salle
1690 Spanish established Mission San Francisco de los Tejas
1691 Visited by Tonti; visited by cartographer Domingo Teran; smallpox epidemic
1693 Caddo drove friars and soldiers back to Mexico as a result of plagues, closed mission
1714 Joined by Natichitoches who's population had been diminishing due to disease and conflict with other tribes
1719 La Harpe established trading post
1800 Removed to Louisiana after Osage attacks
1803 Louisiana Purchase
1824 Joined by Quapaw
1833 Quapaw removed to Indian Territory
1834 Smallpox epidemic
1835 Treaty, Louisiana lands ceded, moved to Texas near Hasinai
1836 Influx of American settlers, called territory Texas after Spanish name for region Tejas (Tejas in turn derived from Caddo word for friend ... taychas.
1845 Texas statehood, land given to Caddos on Brazos River
1854 Last of Caddos removed to Brazos River Reservation
1859 White violence forced tribe to removed to Indian Territory and Kansas; joined by Hasinai who lost separate identity finally uniting under the name of Caddo; later given land on Washita River
1874 Oklahoma territories settled upon, joined by remaining Caddoan tribes and remnants
1902 Allotted Oklahoma lands in severalty
Year Total Population KA LA OK TX Source
Arrival 2,000 Mooney est.
1700 2,250 Bienville and La Harpe estimate
1700 2,2,50 250 250 1,750 NAHDB calculation
1718 800 La Harpe estimate
1800 800 800 NAHDB calculation
1805 800 Sibley estimate
1825 450 Porter estimate
1851 476 Stem estimate
1876 467 US Indian Office
1900 500 500 NAHDB calculation 
1937 967 US Indian Office 
1981 1,215 BIA
1989 894 BIA
2000 4,000 4,000 NAHDB calculation
2004 4,774 Tribal enrollment, about 25& on tribal land
Other speakers of the same language:
Nasinai, Natchitoches
Caddo Sites:
Caddo Ancestors
Caddo Authors
Caddo Cultures in Texas
Caddo History
Caddo History
Caddo Indian History
Caddo Indians
Caddo Indians
Caddo Indians
Caddo Indians
Caddo Indians and Caddo Archeology
Caddo Indian Territory Museum
Caddo Indians Through Time
Caddo Indian Village
Caddo Language
Caddo Language
Caddo Life and Times
Caddo Linguistic Lineage
Caddo Mounds
Caddo Nation
Caddo Nation
Caddo Pot
Caddo Tomahawk
Caddo Trading Company
Caddo Words
Cocoran, Dolores Purdy, Artist
Flint Points
Historic Caddo
Jacob, a Caddo Native American
Kadohadacho Indian Tribe
Long Term Looting of Caddo Indian Sites ...
Mississippian Civilization:  Southern Region
Ouachita Forest History
Sha'chahdinnih (Timber Hill):  Last Village of the Kadahadacho in the Caddo Homeland
Spiro and the Arkansas Basin
Spiro Carved Shell

Last updated 09/30/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press