Language: Dakota
Family: Central Mississippi Valley Siouan 
Stock: Siouan Proper
Phylum: Siouan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers 150 to 200 speakers    1986 Census
      Aboriginally, the ancestors of the Assiniboin were likely sedentary hunter/farmers among the Yanktonai Dakota.  By 1640, they had their nomadic hunter/gatherer identity ranging from Montana and North Dakota north into Saskatchewan.  Their numerous enemies included the Blackfeet and Gros Ventre but they eventually allied with the Lakota and Crow.
      The Assiniboin were the primary intermediaries between Hudson Bay Company and tribes to the south and west.  In doing so, they were able to keep guns from their enemies.  They nonetheless suffered severely from intertribal conflicts and from smallpox.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
MN among Yanktonai Dakota
Present Locations
AB    Stoney Reserve, Calgary
MT    Fort Belknap Reservation, Harlem
          Fort Peck Reservation, Poplar
SK     Mosquito Grizzly Bear's Head, Cando
          White Bear, Carlyle
Year History
1640 Mentioned by the Jesuits, had separated from the Yanktonai Dakota prior to this date
1670 Began visiting Hudson Bay to trade, functioned as intermediaries between Hudson Bay Company and tribes
1700 Allied with the Cree against the Sioux
1738 La Verendrye observed Assiniboin trading with the Mandan
1804 Visited by Lewis and Clark
1823 Rocky Mountain Fur Company trappers arrived in Assiniboin territory on two Mike Fink keel boats
1831 The Light visited Washington, later killed in a feud with a tribesman
1837 Ft. Union established at the conflux of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers; smallpox epidemic, some saved by previous Hudson Bay Company vaccinations
1838 La Gauche band had previously attacked Gros Ventre inflicting heavy losses, then later defeated by Arikara and Mandan, and possibly Hidatsa
1844 Made peace with Crow
1846 Famine forced eating of dogs, horses, and children
1849 Piegan Blackfeet killed 52 of tribe on the Maria River
1851 Precarious peace with Blackfeet and Gros Ventre at Ft. Laramie
1857 Attacked by Sitting Bull's Lakota, 11 year old Jumping Bull fought bravely with child sized bow and arrow, became Sitting Bull's brother
1873 Methodist mission set up at Stoney
1877 Treaty No. 7 established Stoney Reserve
1913 St. Michael's Mission established
Year Total Population AB MB MT ND SK Source
1700 10,000 1,000 3,500 3,500 2,000 NAHDB calculation
1780 10,000 Mooney estimate
1800 8,000 800 2,800 2,800 1,600 NAHDB calculation
1829 8,000 Porter estimate
1843 7,000 US Indian Office
1890 3,008 Census
1900 1,900 600 700 600 NAHDB calculation 
1904 1,231 Census
1923 2,400 US Indian Office
1989 3,500 BIA estimate
2000 8,300 3,300 3,000 2,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Assiniboin Sites:
Aboriginal-European Contact at the Forks 1734-60
Assiniboin Authors
Assiniboin Bowman - 1926
Assiniboin Boy
Assiniboin Camp
Assiniboin Camp on Bow River - 1926
Assiniboine History from Oral Tradition
Assiniboine Figurine
Assiniboine Indian Language
Assiniboine Language
Assiniboine Linguistic Lineage
Assiniboine (Nakoda)
Assiniboine-Sioux Authors
Assiniboine Tribe
Assiniboin Indian Bands and Divisions
Assiniboin Indian History
Assiniboin Indians
Assiniboin Indians
Assiniboin:  Lewis and Clark Journals
Assiniboin Language
Assiniboin Linguistic Lineage
Assiniboin, Mid-April to May, 1805
Assiniboin Society
Black Eagle, an Assiniboin Chief
Chief Eagle Friend
Dakota Lakota Nakota Human Right Advocacy Coalition
Fort Assiniboine
Fort Assiniboine
Fort Assiniboine
Fort Carlton
Fort Peck
Fort Peck Assiniboine and Sioux History
Fort Peck Tribes
Fort Peck Tribes Flag
Fort Union Vocabulary
Hunting (Bison Pound)
Letter of the Crazy Bear, Assiniboin Chief
Middle Dakota
Middle Dakota
Nakoda (Assiniboine)
Northern Assiniboine
Oregon Trail
Pheasant Rump Nakota Nation
Substitution of the Bone Hair Pipe
Wisdom of the Elders

Last updated 09/20/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press