Dialect Pawnee
Language: Pawnee-Arikara
Family Pawnee-Kitsai
Stock: Caddoan
Phylum: Macro-Siouan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers 4 speakers in total language    1977 SIL
      The Arikara separated from the Pawnee before White contact.  Though situated on the plains, they were a sedentary hunter/farmer nation of the Plains River Culture with permanent villages on the upper Missouri River.  The Arikara were relatively peaceful and were active traders, but they still suffered greatly in conflict with other tribes as well as Whites.  They Sioux were their greatest enemies.  They experiences great losses from smallpox.  They ultimately developed a considerable dislike for Whites.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
NE among Skidi Pawnee
Present Locations
ND  Fort Berthold Reservation, New Town
Year History
1350 500 Proto-Arikara massacred at Crow Creek
1700 About the time of Arikara separation from Skidi Pawnee
1770 Opened relations with French traders
1794 Smallpox epidemic, varied accounts of result
1795 Internal feud, one band returned to Pawnee while other band migrated north to the area of the Mandan
1804 Visited by Lewis and Clark
1807 Attacked and defeated a party under Ensign Pryor
1823 Gen. Ashley of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company attacked tribe, 14 White and numerous Arikara killed
1824 Col. Leavenworth conducted fruitless revenge attack on Ree village, tribe fled to Pawnee in Nebraska for two years
1838 Smallpox epidemic killed 300, nation suffered from White depredations
1853 Traded 5,000 bushels of corn to Sioux and American Fur Company, tribe prosperous
1862 Moved to Fort Berthold
1880 Fort Berthold Reservations created
1900 Allotted lands in severalty, became citizens
1937 Affiliated with Hidatsa and Mandan
Year Total ND Population Source
Arrival 0 Among Pawnee in Nebraska
1700 3,000 NAHDB calculation
1780 3,000 Mooney estimate
1800 2,600 NAHDB calculation
1804 2,600 Lewis and Clark
1871 1,650 Swanton
1888 500 Swantion
1900 400 NAHDB calculation 
1904 380 Census
1930 420 Census
1989 1,100 BIA estimate
2000 3,000 NAHDB calculation
2005 3,400 IHS 8,400 in tribe, NAHDB estimates 40% Arikara
Other speakers of the same language:
Arikara Sites:
Archeology at Like-A-Fish-Hook Village
Arikara Authors
Arikara Creation Story
Arikara History Brief
Arikara Indians
Arikara Indians
Arikara Indians Full of Surprises for Visitors
Arikara Indian Tribe History
Arikara Language
Arikara Language
Arikara - Lewis and Clark
Arikara Linguistic Lineage
Arikara Literature
Arikara Tribe - Indians with Horns
Arikara Treaty
Arikara War
Biographical Dictionary of Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara
Catlin Collection
Crow Ghost - Arikara 1908
Dakota/Hidatsa/Arikara Delegation Photo
Fort Atkinson
Fort Berthold Reservation
Hidatsa Mandan Arikara Earth Lodge
Indian Paint
Lewis and Clark Journal - Arikara
Lewis and Clark Meet with the Arikara
Mandan, Hidatsa, Arikara:  Life Along the Upper Missouri
MHA Nation
Pawnee Language
Pawnee Language
Pawnee Linguistic Lineage
Sanish Ghost Town
Three Affiliated Tribes at Fort Berthold
Wisdom of the Elders
Wounded Hawk

Last updated 09/20/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press