Ethnie: Arapaho
Language: Arapaho
Family: Plains Algonquian
Stock: Algonquian
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
     The Arapaho were sedentary hunter/farmers in the Red River Valley until well before White contact.  They were apparently expelled from their homeland by Ojibwan peoples about 1650.  They then became nomadic hunter/gatherers, at first existing as a headwaters culture in the eastern Rockies.  Ultimately, when they acquired horses and guns after 1700, they went out onto the plains and depended almost entirely on buffalo for subsistence.   
     The Gros Ventre separated from the Arapaho about 1700, still before White contact.  The Arapaho gradually divided into northern and southern tribes in the 1800's.  They fought bitter wars with the Crow, Northern Shoshone, Ute, and Pawnee until they were confined to reservations in Oklahoma and Wyoming, sharing the Wyoming reservation with their long time enemies, the Northern Shoshone.
Speakers 1,038   1990 Census
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
ND & MN  Occupied the Red River Valley
Present Locations
OK  Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribe, Concho
WY  Wind River Reservation, Riverton
Year History
1650 Approximate year Arapaho removed from the Red River Valley of North Dakota and Minnesota to the eastern Rocky Mountains, likely as a result of the domino effect of the Beaver Wars (1640-1680) in which the Iroquois attacked all of the tribes from New York to the Mississippi River and from the Ohio River to above the Great Lakes.
1700 Approximate year in which tribe contributed to the fission of the Comanche from the Northern Shoshone and the removal of the Comanche, Kiowa, and Kiowa Apache from the region of Wyoming; and soon thereafter the tribe acquired guns and horses; Kroeber estimated that the Gros Ventre fissioned from the Arapaho nucleus entity
1830 Slowly began to separate into northern and southern tribes
1840 Made peace with Lakota, Dakota, Comanche, and Kiowa; at war with Northern Shoshone, Ute, and Pawnee
1864 Arapaho and Cheyenne men, women, and children massacred at Sand Creek in Colorado by Chivington
1865 Gen. Patrick Conner routed the tribe killing chief Black Bear and men, women, and children.
1867 Medicine Lodge Treaty; Southern Arapaho place on reservation in Oklahoma with Southern Cheyenne
1869 Transcontinental railroad completed through territory
1876 Northern Arapaho placed on Wind River Reservation in Wyoming along with their traditional enemies the Northern Shoshone
1892 Oklahoma lands allotted in severalty
Year U.S. Population MT ND/MN OK WY Source
Arrival 3,000 3,000
1700 3,000 3,000 NAHDB calculation
1780 3,000 3,000 Mooney estimate
1800 3,000 3,000 NAHDB calculation
1900 2,300 1,200 1,100 NAHDB calculation 
1904 1,748 Census
1923 1,754 US Indian Office
1989 2,700 BIA estimate
2000 3,000 1,900 1,100 NAHDB calculation
2000 Census, Northern Tribe
2005 Coel
Other speakers of the same language:
Gros Ventre
Arapaho Sites:
Arapaho Authors
Arapaho Camp
Arapaho Indian Camp
Arapaho Indian Camp
Arapaho Indian Culture
Arapaho Indian History
Arapaho Indians and Cheyenne Indians
Arapaho Indian Smoking a Pipe
Arapaho Indian Tribe
Arapaho Indian Tribe ...
Arapaho Language
Arapaho School
Arapaho Students at Carlisle Indian School
Arapaho Tribe
Cheyenne/Arapaho Lands
Cheyenne Arapaho Lands of Oklahoma Geneology
Cheyenne-Arapaho Tribe
Chris Eyre
Conner Battlefield
Constitution and By-Laws of Cheyenne-Arapaho of Oklahoma
Fort Reno
Northern Arapaho Tribe
Northern Arapaho Tribe
Old Arapaho Indian
Sand Creek Massacre Site Project
Sand Creek Massacre Site Oral History
Scabby Bull
St. Stephen's Indian Mission
Wind River Reservation

Last updated 0917/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press